2. During the Cold War, the Swedish Total Defence doctrine underpinned Sweden’s defence policy but it gradually fell dormant following the collapse of the Soviet Union. It was jolted back into life by Russia’s annexation of Crimea in 2014.
3. Some countries, coastal to the Baltic Sea, Netherlands (Walrus class), Estonia (land based Blue Spear), Finland (naval mines), Sweden (Blekinge class) & Germany (Type 212CD) have highly evolved sea denial strategies against the Russian navy. The national defence universities of Finland & Sweden organized a joint exercise — 20 to 30 Mar 2023. The goal was to develop knowledge of the planning & implementation of a NATO-led joint operation.