Indian Space Program Discussions / ISRO Plans


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hey guys here is an interesting article on the indian cryogenic rocket engine,which is to be tested this year.

Few are aware but when Michael Griffin, administrator of the United States’ National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) came calling to India last May, he was amazed and surprised on going through minute details of the ‘in-the-making’ indigenous cryogenic engine at the Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre in Thiruvananthapuram. Despite the decade-long US sanctions, Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) seems to have done a remarkable job with the limited budget available to it, was his cryptic and subdued response.
Late last year, India’s experience in rocketry touched an all-time high when its space agency achieved a major milestone in the development of rocket systems for satellite launches. Specifically, Cryogenic Upper Stage for GSLV was successfully tested at the Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre (LPSC) test complex at Mahendragiri, Tamil Nadu.

After completion of the qualification tests, the indigenous cryogenic stage is planned to be flight tested in a GSLV- D3 mission later this year. It is currently the most powerful Indian launch vehicle in operation.

Cryogenic engines are essential to put heavier satellites into geo-synchronous transfer orbits (GTO) at an altitude of 36,000 km. As such, cryogenic propulsion enables a launch vehicle to put a payload two times heavier than that orbited by a vehicle without a cryogenic upper stage.
Dwelling further, an ISRO official points out: “A cryogenic engine uses liquid hydrogen at -265° Celsius as fuel and liquid oxygen at -240° C as oxidiser. Development of the engine involves a highly complex technology because of the very low temperatures of the propellants. Very few countries—US, Russia, European Space Agency, China and Japan—have achieved success in it and it is a jealously guarded technology.
Recognising that India would require its own independent space capabilities—in the wake of the sanctions bringing in instability in the supply of parts and technology—the endeavour has been to indigenise every material supply route, mechanism and technology. Development of the cryogenic engine for use in the GSLV was initiated in 1994 when the US arm-twisted Russia, forcing it not to sell the cryogenic technology know-how to India. Hence, the need for ‘hot testing’ of Cryogenic Upper Stage for GSLV, which ISRO officials claim to be the first of its kind in the country.
Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre (LPSC), the lead centre for liquid propulsion systems is responsible for the realisation of the indigenous cryogenic stage and the associated test facilities with the support of Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC) and Satish Dhawan Space Centre, SHAR. Indian industries have significantly contributed in the realisation of the cryogenic stage.
ISRO’s recent test has demonstrated the design adequacy and performance of the integrated flight system. All stage elements like engine, insulated propellant tanks, booster pumps, fill and drain systems, pressurisation systems, gas bottles, igniters, cold gas orientation and stabilisation system, etc, were successfully tested. Going forward, further tests for this flight unit are planned to validate robustness of the design.
ISRO has taken up indigenous development of cryogenic stage with regenerative cooled engine, which produces a thrust of 69.5 KN in vacuum, to replace the existing procured stage from Russia currently used in GSLV flights. “The materials used to operate at cryogenic temperatures, chilling processes, interplay of various critical engine parameters and a host of other technical aspects make the development of cryogenic stage a very challenging task,” say ISRO officials. “A cryogenic stage is a very complex system that entails synergy from multi-disciplinary teams that develop sub-systems, electronic components, plumbing and so on. It is also crucial to the development of launch vehicles like the GSLV.”
For the GSLV, ISRO did the electronics and controls for the entire cryogenic stage. It went through a systematic process of testing and qualifying the electronics along with the cryo. Also, the liquid hydrogen was made by ISRO.
When a modified version of the PSLV will be launched from Sriharikota sometime in 2007-08 carrying Chandrayaan-1, a spacecraft weighing 1,050 kg, it will be powered by indigenously built cryogenic engines. It will have instruments from India, the European Space Agency (ESA), Bulgaria and ironically, the US, which will be a participant in India’s Moon odyssey.
Watch out for...
On January 10 this week, ISRO will put in orbit a recoverable satellite called the Space Capsule Recovery Experiment (SRE). After the SRE stays in orbit for a week or so, it will splash down 140 km east of Sriharikota in the Bay of Bengal and recovered by the Indian Navy.
The SRE, which weighs about 615 kg, is a technological forerunner to ISRO mastering the re-entry technology and building re-usable launch vehicles. A host of new technologies like deceleration and flotation systems will be tested when the SRE descends from its orbit. Its three parachutes will open one after another when it is five km above the waters of the Bay of Bengal.
The SRE is expected to provide scientists valuable experience in navigation, guidance and control during the re-entry phase. It has a thermal protection system which prevents it from burning up when it knives into the earth’s atmosphere and searing heat is generated. That’s not all. On the same day, ISRO, through a multi-mission of the PSLV-C7 flight, will also put in orbit four satellites—Cartosat-II, the cone-shaped SRE, the 56-kg LAPAN-Tubsat developed by Indonesia and the Technical University of Berlin, and the six-kg micro-satellite called Pehuen from Argentina.


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Guys a very good news for all indians outthere ISRO is in limelight again but this time for good reasons slowly but steadily india is going for the final obnective of putting man in space. Read on........

New Delhi: Indian space science crossed yet another milestone as the PSLV-C7 lifted off succesfully from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota in Andhra Pradesh.

The 44.5 metre tall four-stage vehicle roared into the skies at 0924 hrs (IST). The PSLV-C7 is carrying the 680 kg Indian remote sensing satellite CARTOSAT-2, the 550 kg Space Capsule Recovery Equipment (SRE-1), Indonesia's LAPAN-TUBSAT and Argentina's six kg nanosatellite and PEHUENSAT-1.

Scientists at the Mission Control Centre (MCC) of the launch pad announced that was a perfect launch with all parameters working perfectly.

After the lift off, the vehicle first injected the CARTOSTAT-2 into the 635 km high Polar Sunsynchronous Orbit. Forty seconds later, PEHUENSAT-I was placed in the orbit, followed by SRE-1 and LAPAN-TUBSAT.

The entire mission, from the blast off to the injection of all the four payloads, took approximately 20 minutes.

With the launch of SRE-1, India earns membership into the elite group of Nations. The SRE-1 was a technological forerunner to Indian scientists mastering the re-entry technology and building re-usable launch vehicles like Discovery.


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here is another article containing some information about these satallites ,including their cost.

here is the link and article:

After SRE stays in orbit for 11 days, it will be de-orbited and brought back to the earth in a sequential manner

SRIHARIKOTA: Although the PSLV-C7 launch was a runaway success with the injection of four satellites into orbit on Wednesday, the job of A. Subramonian has just begun. For, he is the Project Director of India's first recoverable satellite called the Space Capsule Recovery Experiment (SRE), one of the four satellites put in orbit.
"Right now, I feel that my job has just started. I am looking forward to January 22 morning when the SRE will be recovered," Mr. Subramonian said.
After the 555-kg SRE stays in orbit for 11 days, it will be de-orbited and brought back to the earth in a sequential manner. It is coated with thermal tiles to prevent it from burning up when it re-enters the earth's atmosphere. After it re-enters the atmosphere, about 5 km above the Bay of Bengal, three parachutes in the SRE will open up one after another. First, the pilot chute will pull out the drogue chute, which will deploy, and then the main chute will deploy. The main chute will slow down the descent of the SRE and it will ultimately splash down into the Bay of Bengal, about 140 km east of the Sriharikota island. A floatation system will keep it afloat. Dye markers will make it visible. The Coast Guard will recover it.
"There are a lot of technological challenges" in bringing back an orbiting satellite because "we are doing it for the first time," said G. Madhavan Nair, ISRO Chairman. It should be de-orbited in the right direction; it should be given the right incremental velocity. It should re-enter the atmosphere without burning up.
Dual Launch Adopter

The PSLV-C7 used for the first time a device called Dual Launch Adopter (DLA) to launch four satellites. It also used for the first time a video-imaging system on board to take pictures of the separation of the first three satellites from the fourth stage of the rocket.
According to George Koshy, Vehicle Director, the PSLV-C7 used a video-imaging system to take pictures of the separation of the Cartosat-2, the Peheunsat-1 and the SRE from the PSLV's fourth stage. No picture was taken of the injection of the LAPAN-TUBSAT into orbit.
N. Narayanamoorthy, Mission Director, PSLV-C7, said: "... The mission management to inject four bodies into precise orbit without any collision is a big design achievement in itself ... We are wonderfully happy."
After the 680-kg Cartosat-2 flew out first, the "vehicle was re-oriented" and out flew the six-kg Peheunsat-I, said Mr. Nair. There was one more manoeuvre of the vehicle and the SRE was injected into orbit. The vehicle was again tilted at an angle and the 56-kg LAPAN-TUBSAT flew out.
Precision system

All the four satellites were launched on the dot at the right height and inclination. Each of the four satellites was put into a circular orbit of 637 km above the earth while the predicted orbit was 635 km above the earth.
The inclination achieved was 97.9 degrees while the target was 97.91 degrees, a deviation of 0.01 degree. "This shows the precision of our rocket system and the functioning of the on-board computer," the ISRO Chairman said.
According to M. Krishnaswamy, Project Director, Cartosat-2, the satellite's images could be used in town and rural planning. With its one-metre resolution, at the cadastral level, the boundaries of each land area could be easily identified.
"This will be useful in tax assessment," Mr. Krishnaswamy said. The actual plan of houses up to one-metre accuracy could be found out, which would again be useful in tax assessment. The Cartosat-2 images would also be useful in road and drainage alignment, and studying the passage of communication lines.
The LAPAN-TUBSAT is an earth observation satellite. The Pehuensat-1 is to learn the art of building satellites.
It cost the ISRO Rs. 80 crore to build PSLV-C7, Rs. 180 crore for the Cartosat-2 and Rs. 30 crore for the SRE.
About $8,000-$10,000 a kg would be charged for orbiting the LAPAN-TUBSAT and the Pehuensat-1.
According to R.V. Perumal, Director, Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre, ISRO, a GSLV bearing an indigenous cryogenic stage will be launched either by the end of this year or the beginning of next year.
Chandrayaan-I, India's mission to the moon, would take place in the beginning of 2008. "We have a long way to go" for India's manned mission, said Mr. Nair. It would take eight years to send an Indian into space. The Ariane vehicle will launch the INSAT-4B from the Kourou island in French Guiana by the middle of this year. The PSLV-C8 will lift off from SHAR in March or April to orbit Italy's Agile satellite and the ISRO's Advanced Avionics Mission Module.


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hey guys check out this link and article,it contains some information on the indian satellites just launched by the indian space research organisation.

here is the link and article:

In its tenth flight conducted from Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC) SHAR, Sriharikota, today (January 10, 2007), ISRO’s Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle, PSLV-C7, successfully launched four satellites -- India’s CARTOSAT-2 and Space capsule Recovery Experiment (SRE-1), Indonesia’s LAPAN-TUBSAT and Argentina’s PEHUENSAT-1 into a 635 km high polar orbit. For the first time, a Dual Launch Adopter (DLA) was used in PSLV to accommodate two primary satellites in tandem.
After the final count down, PSLV-C7 lifted off from the first launch pad at SDSC SHAR, at 9.23 am with the ignition of the core first stage and four of the six strap-on motors. The remaining two strap-on motors were ignited at 25 sec after lift-off. The important flight events included the separation of the ground-lit strap-on motors, separation of air-lit strap-on motors and the first stage, ignition of the second stage, separation of the heatshield at about 121 km altitude after the vehicle had cleared the dense atmosphere, second stage separation, third stage ignition, third stage separation, fourth stage ignition and fourth stage cut-off.
The 680 kg main payload, CARTOSAT-2, mounted over DLA, was the first satellite to be injected into orbit at 981.3 sec after lift-off at an altitude of 639 km. About 45 sec later, DLA with the 6 kg PEHUENSAT-1 mounted on it, was separated. 120 sec later, the 550 kg Space capsule Recovery Experiment (SRE-1) mounted inside DLA was separated and finally, 190 sec later, the 56 kg LAPAN-TUBSAT, mounted on the equipment bay of PSLV fourth stage was separated.
The four satellites have been placed in a polar orbit at an altitude of 637 km with an inclination of 97.9 deg with respect to the equator. The initial signals indicate their normal health.
PSLV is the workhorse launch vehicle of the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) with nine consecutively successful flights so far. Since its first successful launch in 1994, PSLV has launched seven Indian remote sensing satellites, an amateur radio satellite, HAMSAT, and four small satellites for foreign customers into 550-800 km high polar SSOs. Besides, it has also launched India’s exclusive meteorological satellite, Kalpana-1, into Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO). PSLV will also be used to launch India’s first spacecraft mission to moon, Chandrayaan-1, during 2008.
The 44 m tall PSLV has a lift-off mass of 295 tonne. It is a four-stage launch vehicle with the first and the third stages as well as the six strap-ons surrounding the first stage using HTPB based solid propellant. PSLV’s first stage is one of the largest solid propellant boosters in the world. Its second and fourth stages use liquid propellants. PSLV’s bulbous payload fairing has a diameter of 3.2 metre. The vehicle has S-band telemetry and C-band transponder systems for monitoring its health and flight status. It also has sophisticated auxiliary systems like stage and payload fairing separation systems.
PSLV was originally designed to put 1,000 kg class of India’s remote sensing satellites into a 900 km polar SSO. The payload capability of PSLV has been successively enhanced and in today’s flight, PSLV-C7, it launched four payloads, in all weighing 1292 kg in addition to the DLA. Some of the modifications incorporated in PSLV-C7 compared to the previous flight, PSLV-C6, are:
  • Use of Dual Launch Adopter
  • Reduction of propellant from 2.5 tonne to 2 tonne in the fourth liquid propellant stage, PS4
  • Altitude based Day of Launch wind biased steering programme during Open Loop Guidance
CARTOSAT-2, the twelfth in the Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) satellite series, is an advanced remote sensing satellite capable of providing scene-specific spot imagery. It will join the other six IRS satellites which are in service -- IRS-1C, IRS-1D, OCEANSAT-1, Technology Experimental Satellite (TES), RESOURCESAT-1 and CARTOSAT-1. It carries a Panchromatic camera (PAN) to provide imageries with a spatial resolution of better than one metre and a swath of 9.6 km. The satellite can be steered up to 45 deg along as well as across the track. The data from the satellite will be used for cartographic applications at cadastral level, urban and rural infrastructure development and management, as well as applications in Land Information System (LIS) and Geographical Information System (GIS).
Soon after its separation from the DLA, the two solar arrays of CARTOSAT-2 were automatically deployed to generate the electrical power for the satellite. The satellite health is being continuously monitored from the Spacecraft Control Centre of ISTRAC at Bangalore with the help of its network of stations at Bangalore, Lucknow, Mauritius, Bearslake in Russia, Biak in Indonesia, as well as support from Svalbard ground station in Sweden for the initial phase of the CARTOSAT-2 mission. Further operations on the satellite like orbit trimming, checking out the various subsystems and, finally, switching on the cameras will be carried out in the coming days.
With ISRO Satellite Centre (ISAC), Bangalore, as the lead Centre, CARTOSAT-2 was realised with major contributions from Space Applications Centre (SAC), Ahmedabad, LPSC at Bangalore, and IISU, Thiruvananthapuram. ISTRAC is responsible for initial and in-orbit operation of CARTOSAT-2. The National Remote Sensing Agency (NRSA), Hyderabad receives and processes the data from CARTOSAT-2.
Space capsule Recovery Experiment (SRE-1): Space capsule Recovery Experiment (SRE-1), developed by ISRO’s VSSC and ISAC, is a 550 kg capsule, intended to demonstrate the technology of an orbiting platform for performing experiments in microgravity conditions. After the completion of the experiments, the capsule will de-orbited after a few days and recovered. SRE-1 mission will provide valuable experience in such important fields like navigation, guidance and control during the re-entry phase, hypersonic aero-thermodynamics facilitating the development of reusable thermal protection system (TPS), recovery through deceleration and floatation besides acquisition of basic technology for reusable launch vehicles.
SRE-1 carries two experiments, an Isothermal Heating Furnace [IHF] and a Biomimetic (Biomineralisation of Inorganic materials) experiment. IHF will be operated to perform metallurgical experiments while Biomimetic experiment will be operated to perform Biomimetic synthesis. SRE-1 comprises aero-thermo structure, spacecraft platform, deceleration and floatation system besides the micro-gravity payloads. It has a sphere-cone-flare configuration with a spherical nose of about 0.5 m radius, base diameter of 2 m and 1.6 m height. The capsule is made of mild steel. The parachute, pyro devices, avionics packages of triggering unit and sequencer, telemetry and tracking system and sensors for measurement of system performance parameters are placed inside SRE capsule.
Two days before de-orbiting, SRE-1 will be placed in a Repetitive Elliptical Orbit. Subsequently, it will be reoriented and deboost rocket is fired to make it reenter the earth’s atmosphere. Close loop guidance system is employed during deboost and coasting phases leading to its recovery. On re-entry, after initial aerodynamic braking, a parachute system will reduce the touch down velocity. SRE-1 will splashdown in the Bay of Bengal, east of Sriharikota coast. A floatation system will keep SRE afloat and enables its recovery.
SRE-1 is being tracked and monitored by ground stations at Bangalore, Lucknow, Mauritius, Biak in Indonesia, Bearslake in Russia, Saskatoon in Canada and Svalbard in Sweden/Transo in Norway.
LAPAN-TUBSAT and PEHUENSAT-1: LAPAN-TUBSAT and PEHUENSAT-1 were launched under commercial agreements. LAPAN-TUBSAT is a cooperative venture between Indonesian Space Agency, LAPAN and Technical University of Berlin. It is an earth observation satellite besides a technical demonstrator in control systems. The 56 kg LAPAN-TUBSAT carries two Charge Coupled Device (CCD) cameras with ground resolutions of 5 m and 200 m respectively. It also carries an experiment for message store and forward system.
PEHUENSAT-1 is a 6 kg Argentinean nano-satellite meant to serve educational, technological and scientific fields. PEHUENSAT-1, developed by University of Comahue of Argentina, AMSAT (Amateur Satellite Association of Argentina) and Argentina Association for Space Technology, is intended to provide an experiment platform to perform amateur radio experiments between colleges and universities of Argentina. With its ninth consecutively successful launch today, PSLV has once again proved its reliability and versatility to orbit multiple satellites and launch satellites in different types of orbit. In today’s launch, several improvements to the vehicle and the Dual Launch Adopter have been proved in flight.


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hey guys,great news ,indian space research organisation is to launch two more commercial satellites next year.

here check out this link and article:

"Serious and real launch opportunities will open up when we get the GSLV-Mk3 ready," Mr Murthi said.

Bangalore , Jan. 10
ISRO will be handling at least two commercial satellite launches, if not four, in the next one year on the tested PSLV vehicle, according to a senior official.
Among the orders clinched is NLS-4, which is most likely to be flown by the end of 2007. NLS-4 is a cluster of six nanosats for the Toronto University - coordinated mission. The nanosats weigh from 1 kg to 5 kg and are being put up by six universities, according to Mr K.R. Sreedhara Murthi, Executive Director of ISRO's marketing arm, Antrix Corporation. He did not reveal the revenue they would fetch.
Meanwhile, Antrix is closing in on "a couple of other launch contracts," Mr Murthi told Business Line.
It also expects to see off two commitments clinched earlier. These are the first full-scale launch of the Italian-built 600-kg Agile before March 31 this year; and the Singapore University's XSAT which is being fine-tuned at the ISRO Satellite Centre.
All the smaller missions except Agile will be piggyback passengers with larger satellites and ride on spare capacity on the rocket.
Lucrative, but risky

For a space agency, the launcher business is the most lucrative, as also risky. ISRO's well-ensconced competitors such as Arianespace or US operators charge $10,000-12,000 per kg of satellite or go up to even $20,000 depending on the weight and height of the orbit. A polar launch such as Wednesday's should also cost more.
Commercial satellite launches have been slow to come by, although ISRO entered the space transportation business with the polar launcher, the PSLV, in May 1999. All the six commercial launches to its credit are small. The biggest were three in the 100-kg class.
On Wednesday, it added two small satellites to the business tally - the 56-kg LAPAN-TUBSAT and the 6-kg Argentine nano Pehuensat. It also struck a joint marketing deal with European launcher major, Arianespace, to break into the launching club.
"Serious and real launch opportunities will open up when we get the GSLV-Mk3 ready," Mr Murthi said. "It would be ideal to have full launches; multiple launches need coordination with as many customers for schedules and spacecraft. However, small ones cannot be ignored as they are important in building brand value and relationship with customers."
Mk3 is the ambitious project that will double the lift-off capacity of the 2-tonne GSLV, the geosynchronous or higher and equatorial orbit launch vehicle. And the GSLV, proven four times and failed once so far, is still to fly an operational Insat.
To take up bigger satellites also means overcoming geopolitical barriers. Satellites having US parts - even if they are not US-built - will need to clear the US export clearance.
Antrix's Rs 414-crore turnover for 2005-06 is growing at 15-20 per cent but the driver has been transponder lease.
PSLV, the best bet?

Has the indigenous PSLV now emerged the best bet internationally to carry small, auxiliary satellites? ISRO would like to say so.
The low production cost of the workshorse is nearly half the international cost as it is almost import-free. The PSLV can take up a 1,500-kg satellite for the cost that others may charge for 850-kg lifts, according to Mr P.S. Shastri, Director, Launch Vehicle Programme Office.
Launching small satellites may not be lucrative but internationally, the satellite size is coming down, from one-tonne to 100-400 kg. The 100-200 class satellites are picking up, he told Business Line.
And for the small satellites, there are not too many carrier options on Earth: the Russian rockets are heavy, outdated and are converted from missiles. The bigger ones like Arianespace do not handle this class any more. "The PSLV could be the best bet because of its precise slotting in orbit and efficiency. Today, it did not use the additional propulsion (kept onboard for contingency) and hence, the satellite life can extend by two years. It is versatile and can be used for low-earth, geotransfer and polar launches. This is the vehicle for our Chandrayaan-1 (lunar) mission, too," he said.


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hey guys,great news ,all the four satellites lauinched by isro are working very well.

here check out this link and article:

Panchromatic camera on board the Cartosat-2 will be switched on from today
The images captured will be used for mapping purposes


CHENNAI: "Everything is normal" with the four satellites put into orbit by the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV-C7) on Wednesday and all are "working well," Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) officials said.
The four satellites are the Cartosat-2 and the Space Capsule Recovery Experiment (SRE), both of ISRO; the LAPAN-TUBSAT jointly built by Indonesia and the Technical University of Berlin; and the Pehuensat-1 of Argentina.
The SRE is a recoverable satellite that ISRO plans to bring back to Earth on January 22.
It will splash down in a pre-determined area of 30 km by 15 km in the Bay of Bengal, about 140 km east of Sriharikota island and the Coast Guard will recover it.
The health of the Cartosat-2 and the SRE is being monitored with the help of antennae situated at the Spacecraft Control Centre of the ISRO Telemetry, Tracking and Command Network (ISTRAC) and its network of ground stations at Bangalore, Lucknow, Mauritius, Bearslake in Russia, Biak in Indonesia and Svalbard in Sweden. A station at Sasketoon in Canada also keeps a tab on the SRE.
S.K. Shivakumar, ISTRAC Director, Bangalore, said the Cartosat-2 and the SRE "are doing fine" and that "we are planning to switch on the panchromatic camera on board the Cartosat-2 tomorrow [January 12] and collect data."
Mr. Shivakumar said: "We have to work out the plans for the re-entry of the SRE. We have a nominal plan. Since the launch was so good, the pre-launch plans for the recovery of the SRE hold good too."
The two micro-gravity experiments to be done with the help of the payloads on board the SRE will start on January 12. One experiment relates to the growth of crystals and the second is a bio-mimetic experiment for studying minerals in micro-gravity environment.
ISRO rocket engineers are overjoyed at the success of the PSLV-C7 mission because it came after the failure of the Geo-synchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle launch on July 10, 2006. The GSLV broke up because of the malfunctioning of one of its liquid motors, which had a manufacturing defect. This motor, fired by liquid fuel, is common to both the PSLV and the GSLV.
George Koshy, Vehicle Director, PSLV-C7, said: "After the last [failed] mission of ISRO, we took extra care to re-examine all the items, all the systems and all the sub-systems. Subsequently, quality assessment teams went into all the possible defects that may be hiding inside. It was a meticulous job. We left no room for failure. We worked extended hours. Nobody minded the extra hours. ISRO's goal was to have a 100 per cent success and we did it," he said.
The teams inspected the total vehicle, although only the liquid strap-on booster motor in the GSLV had failed, Mr. Koshy said. John Zachariah, Deputy Director, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Thiruvananthapuram, said: "We took every care in the vehicle integration, testing, launch rehearsal and launch operations."


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hey ,guys,check this out cartosat2 has sucessfully beamed its first images back and is claimed to have a resolution of just 80cms.

here is the link and article:

The Panchromatic camera (PAN) on board ISRO's latest remote sensing satellite, CARTOSAT-2,
was switched on at 10.05 am IST today (January 12, 2007) through a series of commands issued from the Spacecraft Control Centre of ISRO Telemetry, Tracking and Command Network (ISTRAC) at Bangalore. Analysis of the first imagery received at National Remote Sensing Agency's Data Reception Station at Shadnagar, near Hyderabad, confirms excellent performance of the camera. The first imagery covered a length of about 240 km from Paonta Sahib in Shivalik region to Delhi. Another set of imagery of about 50 km length covered Radha Nagari to Sagoan in Goa before the satellite passed over the Arabian Sea.
It may be recalled that the 680 kg CARTOSAT-2, the twelfth in the Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) satellite series, along with Space capsule Recovery Experiment (SRE-1),
Indonesia’s LAPAN-TUBSAT and Argentina’s PEHUENSAT-1, were launched into the intended 639 km high polar orbit by PSLV-C7 from Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC) SHAR, Sriharikota on January 10, 2007. Soon after its separation from the Dual Launch Adopter (DLA), the two solar arrays of CARTOSAT-2 were automatically deployed. The satellite is being continuously monitored and controlled from the Spacecraft Control Centre of ISTRAC at Bangalore with the help of its network of stations at Bangalore, Lucknow, Mauritius, Bearslake in Russia and Biak in Indonesia. The Ground station at Svalbard in Sweden is also supporting the mission in its initial phase. All systems in the satellite are functioning normally.
CARTOSAT-2 is an advanced remote sensing satellite capable of providing scene-specific spot imagery. The panchromatic camera (PAN) on board the satellite can provide imagery with a spatial resolution of better than one metre and a swath of 9.6 km. The satellite can be steered up to 45 deg along as well as across the track. The data from the satellite will be used for detailed mapping and other cartographic applications at cadastral level, urban and rural infrastructure development and management, as well as applications in Land Information System (LIS) and Geographical Information System (GIS).
Space capsule Recovery Experiment (SRE-1): Space capsule Recovery Experiment (SRE-1) launched by PSLV-C7 along with CARTOSAT-2 is functioning normally and the two microgravity experiments on board related to metallurgy and Biomimetic synthesis are expected to start soon.
LAPAN-TUBSAT is also functioning satisfactorily according to the Indonesian Space agency, LAPAN. Argentina’s nano satellite, PEHUENSAT-1, is expected to start sending signals soon once its battery is charged by its solar panel.


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hey guys ,great news,on january 19 indian space research organisation will carry out a full scale ground test of the indigenous cryogenic rocket engine.

here check out this link and article,it contains some detailed information on the indigenous cryogenic technology.

here is the link:

This test at Mahendragiri will confirm India's position in the global league possessing a highly complex technology


The indigenously developed cryogenic engine at the Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre of ISRO at Mahendragiri in Tamil Nadu. — Photo: A. Shaikmohideen

Chennai: Standing tall, strapped to a towering Main Test Stand in the midst of jungles is India's very own cryogenic stage at the Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre (LPSC) at Mahendragiri, 30 km from Nagercoil town in Tamil Nadu. When this indigenous cryogenic stage fires for 720 seconds on January 19, pouring forth flames and shaking the Western Ghats around, it will confirm India's position as the sixth country to possess this highly complex technology. The others which already have it are the United States, Russia, Europe, Japan and China.
The firing is called a full-duration test because the Indian Space Research Organisation's Geo-synchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) with a cryogenic stage will also fire for 720 seconds in actual flight before injecting a satellite weighing more than 2,500 kg into an orbit of 36,000 km by 180 km.
ISRO Chairman G. Madhavan Nair called the cryogenic technology ``highly complex'' and ``exotic.''
A big jump

The LPSC engineers, led by Director R.V. Perumal, are looking forward to the 720-second test, which will mark a big jump from the 50-second successful firing done on October 28, 2006. If the test is successful, a GSLV with India's own cryogenic stage will lift off from Sriharikota this year itself. It will make the country totally self-reliant in every department of rocket technology: its launch vehicles can put any satellite in any type of orbit.
India's dependence on foreign launchers to put satellites weighing more than 2,000 kg in orbit will stop. The four GSLVs launched from Sriharikota so far carried Russian cryogenic stages.
A series of tests leading to the full-duration test has been completed at Mahendragiri. This includes trial filling of cryogenic propellants, controlling and monitoring their pressure, and integrating the cryogenic stage with the equipment bay in flight configuration.
Mr. Perumal said: "We have completed the development of the cryogenic engine and we have now taken up the qualification of the cryogenic stage. This cryogenic stage is totally ours in design and development of the engine with tanks, all control components for pressurisation, filling of cryogenic propellants and other operations."
Four cryogenic engines were already tested at Mahendragiri for a cumulative 6,000 seconds. "What we are basically trying to do is to fly [test] an indigenous cryogenic stage which has 12 tonnes of propellants and can produce a thrust of 7.5 tonnes." A cryogenic engine is powered by cryogenic propellants — liquid hydrogen at minus 252 degrees Celsius and liquid oxygen at minus 183 degrees Celsius. A cryogenic engine is at the heart of a stage. It is the engine that gives the thrust to the stage to fly. A cryogenic stage consists of not only the engine but also control systems, intricate wiring and electronic equipment.
Multidisciplinary task

Development of a cryogenic stage is a multidisciplinary task. Handling, storing and pumping the cryogenic fluids at these very low temperatures call for advanced technology because they are extremely volatile. If they are stored in tanks or pumped through pipes made of ordinary metals, the metals will become brittle. The lubricants will solidify. So, the LPSC developed new alloys to store liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen and pump them through pipes. But there was another problem.
The pipes ferrying the cryogenic fluids were made of different metals and had to be welded together. Thus, pipes made of aluminium and stainless steel, aluminium and titanium, copper and nickel were fused. "Many dissimilar metals have to be permanently joined together," Mr. Perumal said.
How demanding and intricate the welding was could be gauged from the fact that the diameter of these pipes ranged from just six to 42 mm!
Hydrogen, being light, easily leaks. The bimetallic joints, therefore, called for ingenuity. The ISRO went for welded joints instead of bolted joints, which are used for liquid propellants.
According to B.N. Suresh, Director, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC), Thiruvananthapuram, testing a cryogenic stage on the ground is more difficult than a test in flight because of atmospheric pressure on the Earth. "Apart from the complexity of the propulsion system, you must make sure that all the indigenous elements work harmoniously."
Although four engines had been tested for a total of 6,000 seconds, many new elements came into play when it came to a stage test.
The VSSC has developed a "next-generation electronic system" for the cryogenic stage and the full-duration would qualify it. The VSSC has also developed an advanced mission computer for the stage and "our own chip for the indigenous computer," Dr. Suresh said.
Facing a challenge

In January 1991, the Soviet space agency, Glavkosmos, reached an agreement with the ISRO to supply not only cryogenic engines but also transfer technology. However, the U.S. administration, quoting Missile Technology Control Regime rules and claiming that cryogenic engines could be used to launch missiles, arm-twisted Russia in 1992/93 not to transfer the cryogenic technology. The ISRO, then, accepted the challenge of developing the technology on its own.
Mr. Perumal said: "... We went ahead and made our own engines. It was a challenge. As we started testing the engines, we started learning more and more, and we did a lot of analysis in the modelling of the engine and its process. At the end of it, we have our engine today."
According to Mohammed Muslim, Project Director, Cryogenic Upper Stage Project, LPSC, the ISRO did even better than the Russians in predicting the engine's control requirements. "Our deviation was just one-fourth of the Russians," he said. Perumal chipped in: "It shows we have our own feel for the engine."
Machining of impellers was difficult, Mr. Muslim said. Very intricate castings were fabricated. ISRO engineers came up with pyrovalves at low temperatures and special insulation material with multilayers.
While the ISRO had some prior information on the engine, it had to start everything from scratch for the stage.
Cryogenic technology is "basically a difficult technology" because the propellants have to be stored at very low temperatures and "so there must be appropriate choice of materials" (alloys) to keep them in tanks or pass them through pipes. These propellants tend to absorb the heat in the atmosphere and their bulk goes up. Their pressure increases. They evaporate very fast. Before the propellants are pumped into pipes, all hardware must be conditioned and brought to the same temperature as that of the propellants. The tanks and the engines should be chilled before ignition. Special ignition systems should be developed for liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen.
The ISRO has fabricated tanks made of high-strength aluminium alloy to store the cryogenic propellants. These tanks weigh 100 kg less than the Russian tanks. Ninety-five per cent of the materials indigenised came from MIDHANI, Hyderabad.
A. Gnana Gandhi, Director, Directorate of Quality Assurance and Reliability, ISRO headquarters, Bangalore, pointed out that even when the engine was firing, it had to be kept at a low temperature and an ingenious way of regenerative cooling was employed. In this process, liquid hydrogen was made to pass through small orifices drilled in the nozzle valves. Mr. Gnana Gandhi called it "a complex bracing technology development."
Development of booster high-speed turbo-pumps for liquid hydrogen was another big challenge. As hydrogen has low density, the turbo-pumps have to operate at very high speeds — at 40,000 revolutions a minute. In other words, the pumps developed at the LPSC rotate 700 times every second.
Leak monitoring device

Since they rotate at such phenomenal speed, proper cooling techniques have been invented keep the bearings cool. As hydrogen leaks easily, and flames are not visible when it burns, the LPSC built its own leak-monitoring devices. They have been installed all round the Main Test Stand.


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  • #89
Space recovery Experiment has been successfully been recovered from bay of bengal and has been handed over to ISRO. I think the press release of the final report would be announced shortly. Until now what we can understand from the news channels, the experiment is highly successful.


New Member
hey guys,great news ,after the sucessfull launch and recovery of sre1 ,india now plans to launch the sre2.

here check out this link and article:

Russia, US and China other countries with capability. The successful recovery of the Space Capsule Recovery Experiment (SRE-1) satellite has brought India closer to a select group of nations that have the capability to bring an orbiting spacecraft back to earth. At present, Russia, USA and China have this capability. This will also help India develop a reusable launch vehicle (RLV) for future space launches, although this is still at a nascent stage. According to sources from the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), a reusable launch vehicle will be vital because India is planning a manned mission to space by 2020, after the unmanned mission to moon (Chandrayaan) by early 2008. The ISRO is also planning to launch SRE-2, its second space capsule recovery satellite in the next one or two years, although the date has not been fixed. “We want to master the technology from our experiment on SRE-1, before we go for the second launch. We are giving a thought to the type of experiments we are planning on board the proposed SRE-2,” an ISRO official said. The 550 kg SRE-1 was launched by the ISRO from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre, Sriharikota, on January 10 with three other satellites, including one from Indonesia and one from Argentina, using the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV-C7). It was successfully recovered on Tuesday after being manoeuvred to re-enter the earth's atmosphere. It descended over the Bay of Bengal about 140 km east of Sriharikota. During its stay in orbit for the last 12 days, the two experiments on board SRE-1 were successfully conducted under micro-gravity conditions. One of the experiments was related to the study of metal melting and crystallisation under micro gravity conditions and the second was intended to study the synthesis of nano-crystals under micro-gravity conditions. The first experiment was jointly designed by the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore and the Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Thiruvananthapuram, was performed in an isothermal heating furnace. The second experiment, designed by National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur, was intended to study the synthesis of nano-crystals under micro-gravity conditions. This experiment can help in designing better biomaterials having closest proximity with natural biological products.


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hey guys,great news,india has been invited by russia for the joint developments of the glonass navigational satellite programme intended for civil and millitary use,two agreements are expected to be signed during president putin's visit to india.

here check out this link and article:

Russia to cooperate with India in Glonass military use - Ivanov

23.01.2007, 08.55

BANGALORE, January 23 (Itar-Tass) - Russian Deputy Prime Minister and Defence Minister Sergie Ivanov said on Tuesday Russia will cooperate with India not only in civil, but in military use of the Glonass global navigation satellite system as well.
“We hope that the two agreements on Glonass will be signed during the upcoming visit of the Russian president to India,” he said at a meeting at the Indian Space Research Organization.
He pointed out that the documents would be signed by the Russian federal space agency (Roskosmos), “although Glonass is a dual purpose system.”
“We plan to cooperate with our Indian counterparts in high-accuracy signal. This is a subject of military-technical cooperation, and Rosoboronexport (state-run arms exporter) conducts the talks on it,” Ivanov said.
“At present, India is the only country Russia wants and is ready to cooperate with in Glonass in full volume,” he said.
On the eve of his visit Ivanov pointed to joint projects in Glonass network creation, mainly the launch of Glonass-M satellites by India’s boosters and joint designing and production of new generation Glonass-K satellites with a ten-year lifecycle.
Space cooperation with India is not restricted by this. Last year Roskosmos chief Anatoly Perminov visited India to discuss the creation of different-purpose space systems , including of a third stage to India’s PLSV booster.
India also invited Russia to take part in its moon mission Chandrayan-2. The Lavochkin research and production association is considered a key partner. The Indian lunar mission includes flight to the Moon, lunar landing and sampling, return to the Earth and analysis of samples.
“At all these stages Russia can take an active part as it has rich experience of lunar missions,” a Roskosmos official said.
The Glonass system was launched in 1993 to use 24 satellites in three uniformly spaced orbital planes to provide three-dimensional position and velocity data to equipped users on or above the earth's surface.
It was initially planned to complete the formation of Glonass network by 2012, but President Vladimir Putin instructed the Defence Minister to speed up this work.
“The Glonass system will be completed on a national scale by late 2007, and on a global scale – by 2009,” Ivanov said.
At present, the network has 17 satellites of two modifications – Glonass and Glonass-M (with a seven-year service life). A third generation Glonass-K satellite will operate on the orbit during 10-12 years.


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great news for IND,
but when INDIA can build it by themself.
They are not there yet. We all know that they are trying there best to do with there present budget which is granules compared to many countries space programs but navigational satellite programme needs lot R&D and money. So better to be sensible for now joining RUSSIA as its the only country which would not totally block out any usage of its weaponary or systems. We sure are on the way slowly acheiving each targets confidently take in all the success recent times. :india


New Member
that's nonsense

i never believe RUS,
they almost lost everything except for weapon and oil.
Economically, there should be only two GPS systems in the world.
one sure form US, another one will come from EU.
China may get its Compass ready by 2015,
not much market for RUS, IND, CHN.


New Member
hey guys,great news,the us electronics and space technology giant raytheon has offered to help the indian airforce to set up an aerospace command.

here check out this link and article:,00040005.htm

On the heels of China’s first missile strike against an orbiting satellite, an American firm specialising in defence electronics and space has signalled that it would like to partner India for developing space technology.
Raytheon has shown willingness to support the Indian Air Force’s plans of setting up an aerospace command to tap the potential of space technology in a futuristic war scenario.
Raytheon Asia president Walter F Doran told HT that he had held talks with IAF chief SP Tyagi who had outlined his vision of the command. Doran, a retired Admiral and former Pacific Fleet commander, said, “India has to define its requirements for setting up an aerospace command. Then we can respond through the US government. The missile strike by China has drawn attention to the field of space.”
As of now, the US firm is involved in executing a space-based navigation programme sponsored by the Indian Space Research Organisation called GAGAN (GPS-Aided Geo Augmented Navigation). Raytheon is also supplying critical sensors for ISRO’s proposed unmanned lunar mission, Chandrayaan.
Intensifying its focus on India as a strategic market., Raytheon has proposed to supply to the armed forces the Patriot air and missile defence system, SLAMRAAM (surface-launched advanced medium range air-to-air missile) and the standard missile. Doran said the company’s focus in India included naval mission systems integration, an area which will witness hectic activity considering that shipyards have their order books full.
Raytheon will highlight its technology solutions that integrate advanced sensor and weapon systems for multi-role fighter aircraft at an air dominance conference to be held here on January 31- February 1.
Doran said a long-term partnership approach in India with private and public-sector companies would be preferable to a buyer-seller relationship.
Raytheon’s advanced systems currently equip many leading fighter platforms, including the F/A-18, F-15, F-16, F-22 and F-35 (the Joint Strike Fighter). Against that background, it also has stakes in the IAF’s tender for 126 fighters.


New Member
hey guys,check out this interesting news,it seems that the chinese anti-satellite missile test ,has galvanised the indian governement into taking some decisive action towards a space command.

here check out this link and article:,00040005.htm

An ideal aerospace command would provide the Indian armed forces the capability to monitor a vast region from outer space — the Strait of Hormuz in the West to the Strait of Malacca in the east, China in the north and the Indian Ocean in the south.
It would be an integration of various components of the air force, Indian satellites, radars, communications systems, fighter aircraft and helicopters. The aim: to thwart hostile intrusions from space and missiles launched by military jets or from land and ocean (submarines).

The Indian aerospace command would not be quite as sophisticated as the North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD), a US-Canadian command created in 1958 to guard against Soviet bombers (of the Cold War era), or Russia’s aerospace command called the ‘Strategic Rocket Forces’.

These two nations had sustained programmes for the deployed of a space-based strike weapon (SBSW) throughout the Cold War era, but have not done so. Meanwhile, some aspects of India’s aerospace command would be similar to NORAD and would cover surveillance, tracking, early warning and related areas.
According to sources in the Ministry of Defence, the command would incorporate a few Indian satellites: some low earth satellites (LEO) to map the terrain and monitor the deployment of enemy troops, battle tanks, missiles etc along the borders.

One communication and meteorological satellite would provide a communication link with ground stations and a picture of the weather beyond the Indian borders. It would also have a set of advanced infra-red (IR) sensors to spot surface-to-surface and surface-to-air missiles. In addition, a satellite with a global positioning system (GPS) capability would help in navigation and guidance operations during a hostile intrusion. These satellites would network with ground stations and radars to alert IAF fighter jets, which would in turn intercept a missile or enemy aircraft spotted by them (satellites) from outer space.

Advanced encryption of these satellites would be essential in order to prevent jamming tactics, the sources added.
Though the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) swears that all its programmes are civilian, it has provided support for the armed forces through its Technology Experiment Satellite (TES) which was launched by the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV C3) from Sriharikota Range in 2001. This Indian remote sensing satellite has cameras that map the terrain and beam home pictures of objects the size of a three-wheeler. Ever since the launch, the images beamed by TES have been handed over to the military headquarters to help keep an eye across the borders for possible deployment of troops or weapons.
This January 10, ISRO launched CARTOSAT-2, another satellite of similar capability (one-meter resolution) ostensibly for cartographic applications, but it could also support the armed forces. While these two are low earth orbit satellites, in 2009, ISRO plans to place a remote sensing satellite in geo-stationary orbit (GEO), meaning that its orbit would match the earth’s rotation and it would constantly watch over a particular region.
Meanwhile, the recent pact with Russia on GLONASS satellites would mean easy access to the constellation of Russian satellites deployed as an alternative to the GPS series of the United States, sources in ISRO said. Hence, the navigation and guidance component of the aerospace command envisaged by the IAF. “We will not put up a military satellite because our charter is for civilian applications of space technology. But a single transponder could operate on military frequency of communication to support their network,” the sources added.


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I heard (on the news) that the Indian aerospace command "project" has been ongoing for a while and that it is not in response to the Chinese anti-satellite missile test. According to an Indian Official anyways.


New Member
I heard (on the news) that the Indian aerospace command "project" has been ongoing for a while and that it is not in response to the Chinese anti-satellite missile test. According to an Indian Official anyways.
actually there was some opposistion for the aerospace command from the army and the navy and also the goverment of india was quite reluctant initially ,but the aerospace command programme has gained a fresh impetus.