ARROW 2 THEATRE BALLISTIC MISSILE DEFENCE SYSTEM, ISRAEL http://www.army-technology.com/projects/arrow2/images/Arrow_1.jpg The Arrow 2 theatre ballistic missile defence system has been developed by the MLM Division of Israel Aircraft Industries and is in operation with the Israeli Defence Forces. The system, carrying the codename Homa or Fence, is to be deployed in three batteries including one battery near Tel Aviv and one to the south of Haifa. The first battery became operational in 2000. The demonstrator phase of the program began in 1988 when the US Department of Defense Strategic Defence Initiative placed a contract on the Electronics Division of Israel Aircraft Industries to build and test the Chetz-1 (Hebrew name for Arrow 1) Anti Tactical Ballistic Missile (ATBM) system. Following the successful completion of the demonstrator tests, the system entered full-scale development and production. The weight of the Arrow 1 was 2,000kg. A new missile was developed, the Arrow 2, with a launch weight of 1,300kg, which was first tested in 1995. Arrow 2 has successfully acquired, tracked and destroyed TM-91 Arrow missile targets from ranges of 60km and 100km. Further Arrow Weapon System developments have been planned and will be funded by Israel and the USA. In February 2003, IAI signed an agreement with Boeing to establish the production infrastructure to manufacture components of the Arrow missile in the US. Boeing will be responsible for the production of approximately 50% of the missile components in the US. Boeing will produce various missile components and co-ordinate the production of existing Arrow missile components already being manufactured by more than 150 American companies. IAI will be responsible for integration and final assembly of the missile in Israel. An Arrow Weapon System battery is equipped with typically four or eight launch trailers, each with six launch tubes and ready-to-fire missiles, a truck mounted Hazelnut Tree Launch Control Centre, a truck mounted communications centre, a trailer mounted Citron Tree fire control centre and the units of a mobile Green Pine radar system. http://www.army-technology.com/projects/arrow2/images/Arrow_2.jpg ARROW 2 MISSILE LAUNCH PLATOON The missile launch platoon consists of the Hazelnut Tree truck-mounted Launch Control Centre (LCC) with four or eight missile launch trailers. The entire launch platoon is mobile and able to relocate to a new site. After firing the launchers can be reloaded in an hour. There are microwave and radio data and voice communications links between the launch centre and the radar command and control centre. The launch system can be located up to 300km from the site selected for the radar command and control centre. ARROW 2 ATBM MISSILE The two-stage missile is equipped with solid propellant booster and sustainer rocket motors. The missile uses an initial burn to carry out a vertical hot launch from the container and a secondary burn to sustain the missile's trajectory towards the target at a maximum speed of Mach 9, or 2.5km/s. Thrust vector control is used in the boost and sustainer phases of flight. At the ignition of the second stage sustainer motor, the first stage assembly separates. The Arrow missile is launched before the threat missile's trajectory and intercept point are accurately known. As more trajectory data becomes available, the optimum intercept point is more precisely defined and the missile is guided towards the optimum intercept point. The kill vehicle section of the missile, containing the warhead, fusing and the terminal seeker, is equipped with four aerodynamically controlled moving fins to give low altitude interception capability. The warhead is a high explosive directed blast fragmentation warhead developed by Rafael, which is capable of destroying a target within a 50m radius. The dual mode missile seeker has a passive infrared seeker for the acquisition and tracking of tactical ballistic missiles and an active radar seeker used to home on air breathing targets at low altitudes. The infrared seeker is an indium antimonide focal plane array developed by Raytheon (formerly Amber Engineering). The intercept altitudes are from a minimum of 10km up to a maximum of 50km. The maximum intercept range is approx. 90km. GREEN PINE EARLY WARNING FIRE CONTROL AND MISSILE GUIDANCE RADAR http://www.army-technology.com/projects/arrow2/images/Arrow_3.jpg The Elta Electronic Industries subsidiary of IAI Electronic Group developed the Green Pine early warning and fire control radar for the Arrow system. The radar carries the designation EL/M-2090 and includes the trailer mounted radar and antenna array, the power generator, a cooling system and a radar control centre. Green Pine is an electronically scanned, solid state, phased array radar operating at L-band in the range 500MHz to 1,000MHz, and was developed from the Elta Music phased array radar. The radar operates in search, detection, tracking and missile guidance modes simultaneously. The radar can detect targets at ranges up to about 500km and is able to track targets up to speeds over 3,000m/s. The radar illuminates the target and guides the Arrow missile to within 4m of the target. India has placed an order for the supply of two Elta Green Pine for use with India's air defence system against ballistic missiles. The first was delivered in 2001. http://www.army-technology.com/projects/arrow2/images/Arrow_5.jpg CITRON TREE FIRE CONTROL CENTRE Tadiran Electronics Limited is the prime contractor for the Citron Tree battle management / fire control centre. Citron Tree, which is trailer mounted, downloads the radar data along with data from other sources and uses powerful signal processing tools to manage the threat interceptions fully automatically, including against single and multiple threats. The system has man-in-the-loop intervention capability at every stage. The fire control and battle management centre has computer workstations for the Sky Situation Co-ordinator, Intelligence Officer, Post Mission Analysis Officer, Resource Officer and Senior Engagement Officer as well as the Commander's station. The workstations display a large electronic map showing the area of battle. Predicted and confirmed launch sites are colour coded to show priority sites. When a missile launch is detected, the launch site, the missile's position and trajectory and the predicted impact point are displayed on the electronic map. The predicted impact point is displayed as an ellipse on the map. The size of the impact ellipse shrinks as the missile's trajectory stabilises and the trajectory data becomes available. The trajectory image is colour matched to the image of its launch site. The optimum intercept point is also displayed. The centre can control up to 14 intercepts simultaneously. Link 16, Tadil J, communications is being developed to allow interoperability with Patriot fire control units. Assigned targets can be handed over to the Patriot's N/MPQ fire control radar. Tests carried out by the US and Israel have successfully linked the Arrow and US Patriot and also the Arrow and Israeli Defence Force Patriot version. http://www.army-technology.com/projects/patriot/images/pat10.jpg PATRIOT MISSILE AIR DEFENSE SYSTEM, USA Patriot is a long-range, all-altitude, all-weather air defence system to counter tactical ballistic missiles, cruise missiles and advanced aircraft. Patriot (MIM-104) is produced by Raytheon in Massachusetts and Lockheed Martin Missiles and Fire Control in Florida. As well as the USA, Patriot is in service with Germany, Greece, Israel, Japan, Kuwait, the Netherlands, Saudi Arabia and Taiwan. It has been cleared for sale to Egypt. http://www.army-technology.com/projects/patriot/images/pat6.jpg MISSILE The Patriot missile is equipped with a track-via-missile (TVM) guidance system. Midcourse correction commands are transmitted to the guidance system from the mobile Engagement Control Centre. The target acquisition system in the missile acquires the target in the terminal phase of flight and transmits the data using the TVM downlink via the ground radar to the Engagement Control Station for final course correction calculations. The course correction commands are transmitted to the missile via the Missile Track Command Uplink. The high explosive 90kg warhead is situated behind the terminal guidance section. The range of the missile is 70km and maximum altitude is greater than 24km. The minimum flight time is the time to arm the missile, which is less than 9s, and the maximum flight time is less than 3Â½mins. PAC-2 GEM+ UPGRADE Raytheon has developed the Patriot Guidance Enhanced Missile Plus (GEM+), an upgrade to the PAC-2 missile. The upgrade involves a new fuze and the insertion of a new low noise front end which increases the seeker's sensitivity to low radar cross-section targets. The first upgrade forebodies were delivered to the US Army in November 2002. 148 missiles are to be upgraded under the first production contract. PATRIOT ADVANCED CAPABILITY (PAC-3) A new Patriot Advanced Capability (PAC-3) missile has increased effectiveness against tactical ballistic and cruise missiles, through the use of advanced hit-to-kill technology. Lockheed Martin is the prime contractor with Raytheon the systems integrator. The PAC-3 has a Ka-band millimetre wave seeker developed by Boeing. The missile guidance system enables target destruction through the kinetic energy released by hitting the target head-on. 16 PAC-3 missiles can be loaded on a launcher, compared to four PAC-2 missiles. PAC-3 entered low rate initial production in late 1999 and first LRIP production missiles of a total of 92 were delivered in September 2001. A contract for 88 missiles was placed in December 2002 and a total of 208 missiles are planned for procurement by 2004, when a decision on full-rate production is expected. The Netherlands and South Korea have requested sales of PAC-3 missiles and Lockheed Martin and EADS (formerly DaimlerChrysler Aerospace) have established a joint venture company for the production of the system for the German Air Force. http://www.danshistory.com/patriot.jpg M901 LAUNCHING STATION The M901 Launching Station transports, points and launches the Patriot missile. Each launcher has four missiles. The launcher is remotely operated via a VHF or fibre optic data link from the Engagement Control Station, which provides both the missile prelaunch data and the fire command signal. ENGAGEMENT CONTROL STATION The AN/MSQ-104 Engagement Control Station is the only manned station in a Patriot Fire Unit. The Control Station communicates with the M901 Launching Stations, with other Patriot batteries and the higher command headquarters. The Control Station is manned by three operators, who have two consoles and a communications station with three radio relay terminals. The digital Weapon Control Computer is located next to the VHF Data Link Terminals. RADAR The AN//MPQ-53 phased array radar carries out search, target detection, track and identification, missile tracking and guidance and electronic counter-countermeasures (ECCM) functions. The radar is mounted on a trailer and is automatically controlled by the digital weapons control computer in the Engagement Control Station, via a cable link. The radar system has a range of up to 100km, capacity to track up to 100 targets and can provide missile guidance data for up to nine missiles. The US Army Patriot radars are being upgraded by Raytheon. The upgrade kits provide greater power for the radar and the addition of a wideband capability for improved target discrimination. http://www.army-technology.com/projects/patriot/images/pat5.jpg TARGET ENGAGEMENT A target engagement can be carried out in manual, semi-automatic or automatic mode. When the decision has been made to engage the target, the Engagement Control Station selects the Launch Station or Stations and pre-launch data is transmitted to the selected missile. After launch, the Patriot missile is acquired by the radar. The command uplink and the TVM downlink allow the missile's flight to be monitored and provide missile guidance commands from the weapon control computer. As the missile approaches the target, the TVM guidance system is activated and the missile is steered towards the target. A proximity fuse detonates the high explosive warhead.