This thread is for discussing current and future Russian space programs for the military.
To start off, two new ambitious projects are starting up now. The first is called Akvarel. It's a next-generation satellite intelligence system. It will consist of at least 5 stations located from Kaliningrad to Kamchatka, for communication and control of the satellites. The satellite system include the Liana complex, for detection of warships, and it will include Lotos-S and Pion-NKS sattelites. It will replace the Soviet-era Legenda-Tselina system. There are apparently unresolved problems with Akvarel, leading to delays in transmitting the data to terminals on ships and bases. Lenta.ru: masterok:
It's not clear whether this is the entire system, or whether Liana is just one space-based element of the future system. It seems like a very large investment for just a satellite-based naval tracking system.
This source suggests that it's part of a multi-layered satellite system that will include many future satellite-based recon complexes. ÌÎ ÐÔ íà÷àëî ðàçðàáîòêó ñïóòíèêîâîé ñèñòåìû ðàçâåäêè "Àêâàðåëü" - ÂÎÉÍÀ è ÌÈÐ
Izvestiya suggests that Akvarel will work in conjunction with the Global Reconnaissance System (MRIS) that Russia started developing in 2009. MRIS is a system for tracking ships and aircraft over thousands of kilometers. http://maxpark.com/community/2100/content/1779792
Also, the Soviet-era anti-satellite complex Krona is being tested right now with the same Kontakt missiles, MiG-31 interceptors, and the N radar channel. A new missile to replace the Kontakt ASAT missile is being developed by Fakel. During the initial phase of development the Krona complex will continue to use regular MiG-31 interceptors from the VVS. Eventually a new interceptor based on the MiG-31 will be developed. Supposedly the laser and radar elements of the Krona, for tracking space objects, have been functioning since 2000 (Krona, and Krona-N). Currently both the laser and radar system are located on top of mountain Chapal.They consist of a 30Ж6 laser unit, and a 20Ж6 radar. A second Krona complex is currently being built at Nakhodka. Lenta.ru:
I wonder if the Krona complex would have been made to coordinate with the Almaz satellites. For those that don't know, Almaz-1 was a space-based weapon carrying an autocannon (Щит-1), design to shoot down satellites, and defend the Salyut class space stations from enemy interceptors. The next iteration of the system was supposed to carry two space-space missiles (Щит-2). Neither one was actually launched, but work seemed to be progressing on both. A related Almaz-T system was launched (2 satellites) which carried reconnaissance equipment.
EDIT: An immediate update, it appears that the Krona system was modernized in 2009-2010, possibly with new radar components. Also a total of 3 Radar-Optical Complexes already exist, making the one being built at Nakhodka number 4. Currently they are deployed at Sary-Shagan in Kazakhstan, Stavropolye Russia, and one near Moscow. Trials of the upgraded Krona are to start at the end of this year and will focus on coordinating ground-based detection elements with the ASAT weapons. http://vz.ru/news/2013/1/24/617307.html