Go Back   Defense Technology & Military Forum > Global Defense & Military > Military Strategy and Tactics
Forgot Password? Join Us! Its's free!

Defense News
Land, Air & Naval Forces






Military Photos
Latest Military Pictures

Miramar_14_M1A1_0419a.JPG

Miramar_14_MV-22_1759a.JPG

Nellis_14_2500-1.JPG

Nellis_14_2495-1.JPG
Defense Reports
Aerospace & Defence







Recent Photos - DefenceTalk Military Gallery





Complete U.S Army Manual.

This is a discussion on Complete U.S Army Manual. within the Military Strategy and Tactics forum, part of the Global Defense & Military category; Infantry Urban Fighting Techniques Successful combat operations in urban areas require skills that are unique to this type of fighting. ...


Reply
 
LinkBack Thread Tools Rate Thread
Old May 6th, 2004   #1
Tribal Warlord
Colonel
Pathfinder-X's Avatar
Join Date: Apr 2004
Location: Glorious Soviet Canuckistan
Posts: 1,344
Threads:
U.S Army MOUT Manual

Infantry Urban Fighting Techniques

Successful combat operations in urban areas require skills that are unique to this type of fighting. This appendix discusses some of those skills.
HOW TO MOVE
Movement in urban areas is a fundamental skill that you must master. To minimize exposure to enemy fire while moving:
Do not silhouette yourself, stay low, avoid open areas such as streets, alleys, and parks.
Select your next covered position before moving.
Conceal your movements by using smoke, buildings, rubble, or foliage.
Move rapidly from one position to another.
Do not mask your overwatching/covering fire when you move; and stay alert and ready.
HOW TO CROSS A WALL
Always cross a wall rapidly. But first, find a low spot to cross and visually reconnoiter the other side of the wall to see if it is clear of obstacles and the enemy. Next, quickly roll over the wall, keeping a low silhouette. The rapid movement and low silhouette keep the enemy from getting a good shot at you.
HOW TO MOVE AROUND A CORNER
Before moving around a corner, check out the area beyond it to see if it is clear of obstacles and the enemy. Do not expose yourself when checking out that area. Lie flat on the ground and do not expose your weapon beyond the corner. With your steel helmet on, look around the corner at ground level only enough to see around it. Do not expose your head any more than necessary. If there are no obstacles or enemy present, stay low and move around the corner.
HOW TO MOVE PAST A WINDOW
When moving past a window on the first floor of a building, stay below the window level. Take care not to silhouette yourself in the window, and stay close to the side of the building. When moving past a window in a basement, use the same basic techniques used in passing a window on the first floor. However, instead of staying below the window, step or jump over it without exposing your legs.
HOW TO MOVE PARALLEL TO A BUILDING
When you must move parallel to a building, use smoke for concealment and have someone to overwatch your move. Stay close to the side of the building. Use shadows if possible, and stay low. Move quickly from covered position to covered position.
HOW TO CROSS OPEN AREAS
Whenever possible, you should avoid kill zones such as streets, alleys, and parks. They are natural kill zones for enemy machine guns. When you must cross an open area, do it quickly. Use the shortest route across the area. Use smoke to conceal your move and have someone overwatch you. If you must go from point A to point C, as depicted in the illustration, do not move from point A straight to point C. This is the longest route across the open area and gives the enemy more time to track and hit you. Instead of going from point A straight to point C, select a place (point B) to move to, using the shortest route across the open area. Once on the other side of the open area, move to point C using the techniques already discussed.
HOW TO MOVE IN A BUILDING
When moving in a building, do not silhouette yourself in doors and windows. Move past them as discussed for outside movement. If forced to use a hallway, do not present a large target to the enemy. Hug the wall and get out of the hallway quickly.
HOW TO ENTER A BUILDING
When entering a building, take every precaution to get into it with minimum exposure to enemy fire and observation. Some basic rules are:
Select an entry point before moving.
Avoid windows and doors.
Use smoke for concealment.
Make new entry points by using demolitions or tank rounds.
Throw a hand grenade through the entry point before entering.
Quickly follow the explosion of the hand grenade.
Have your buddy overwatch you as you enter the building.
Enter at the highest level possible.
HIGH LEVEL ENTRIES
The preferred way to clear a building is to clear from the top down. That is why you should enter at the highest level possible. If a defending enemy is forced down to the ground level, he may leave the building, thus exposing himself to the fires outside the building. If the enemy is forced up to the top floor, he may fight even harder than normal or escape over the roofs of other buildings. You can use ropes, ladders, drain pipes, vines, helicopters, or the roofs and windows of adjoining buildings to reach the top floor or roof of a building. In some cases, you can climb onto another soldier's shoulders and pull yourself up. You can attach a grappling hook to one end of a rope and throw the hook to the roof, where it can snag something to hold the rope in place.
LOW LEVEL ENTRIES
There will be times when you can't enter from an upper level or the roof. In such cases, entry at the ground floor may be your only way to get into the building. When making low level entries, avoid entries through windows and doors as much as possible. They are often booby trapped and are probably covered by enemy fire.
HOW TO USE HAND GRENADES
When fighting in built-up areas, use hand grenades to clear rooms, hallways, and buildings. Throw a hand grenade before entering a door, window, room, hall, stairwell, or any other entry point. Before throwing a hand grenade, let it cook off for 2 seconds. That keeps the enemy from throwing it back before it explodes. To cook off a hand grenade remove your thumb from the safety lever; allow the lever to rotate out and away from the grenade; then count one thousand one, one thousand two, and throw it. The best way to put a grenade into an upper-story opening is to use a grenade launcher. When you throw a hand grenade into an opening, stay close to the building, using it for cover. Before you throw the hand grenade, select a safe place to move to in case the hand grenade does not go into the opening or in case the enemy throws it back. Once you throw the hand grenade, take cover. After the hand grenade explodes, move into the building quickly.
HOW TO USE FIGHTING POSITIONS
Fighting positions in urban areas are different from those in other types of terrain. They are not always prepared as discussed in In some cases, you must use hasty fighting positions which are no more than whatever cover is available.
CORNERS OF BUILDINGS
When using a corner of a building as a fighting position, you must be able to fire from either shoulder. Fire from the shoulder that lets you keep your body close to the wall of the building and expose as little of yourself as possible. If possible, fire from the prone position.
WALLS
When firing from behind a wall, fire around it if possible, not over it. Firing around it reduces the chance of being seen by the enemy. Always stay low, close to the wall, and fire from the shoulder that lets you stay behind cover.
WINDOWS
When using a window as a fighting position, do not use a standing position, as it exposes most of your body. Standing may also silhouette you against a light-colored interior wall or a window on the other side of the building. Do not let the muzzle of your rifle extend beyond the window, as that may give away your position. The enemy may see the muzzle or the flash of the rifle. The best way to fire from a window is to get well back into the room. That prevents the muzzle or flash from being seen. Kneel to reduce exposure. To improve the cover provided by a window, barricade the window but leave a small hole to fire through. Also barricade other windows around your position. That keeps the enemy from knowing which windows are being used for fighting positions. Use boards from the interior walls of the building or any other material to barricade the window. The barricade material should be put on in an irregular pattern so that the enemy cannot determine which window is being used. Place sandbags below and on the sides of the window to reinforce it and to add cover. Remove all the glass in the window to prevent injury from flying glass.
PEAKS OF ROOFS
A peak of a roof can provide a vantage point and cover for a fighting position. It is especially good for a sniper position. When firing from a rooftop, stay low and do not silhouette yourself. A chimney, smokestack, or any other structure extending from a roof can provide a base behind which you can prepare a position. If possible, remove some of the roofing material so that you can stand inside the building on a beam or platform with only your head and shoulders above the roof. Use sandbags to provide extra cover. If there are no structures extending from a roof, prepare the position from underneath the roof and on the enemy side. Remove enough of the roofing material to let you see and cover your sector through it. Use sandbags to add cover. Stand back from the opening and do not let the muzzle or flash of your rifle show through the hole. The only thing that should be noticeable to the enemy is the missing roofing material.
LOOPHOLES
A loophole blown or cut in a wall provides cover for a fighting position. Using loopholes reduces the number of windows that have to be used. Cut or blow several loopholes in a wall so the enemy cannot tell which one you are using. When using a loophole, stay back from it. Do not let the muzzle or flash of your rifle show through it. To reinforce a loophole and add cover, put sandbags around it. If you will be firing from a prone position on the second floor, put sandbags on the floor to lie on. That will protect you from explosions on the first floor. Use a table with sandbags on it or some other sturdy structure to provide overhead cover. That will protect you from falling debris.
Pathfinder-X is offline   Reply With Quote
Similar Threads
Thread Thread Starter Forum Replies Last Post
Indian Army News and Discussion aaaditya Army & Security Forces 853 4 Weeks Ago 01:14 PM
Army wants soldiers to have improved carbine F-15 Eagle Army & Security Forces 11 September 16th, 2010 03:04 PM
Iran's new strategy to counter U.S. military strike. gulfsecurity Geo-strategic Issues 243 April 1st, 2008 08:29 PM
USA Planning 20 Billion $ Arms Sale to Saudi Arabia SaudiArabian Geo-strategic Issues 165 November 26th, 2007 01:50 PM
Iranian Forces wesside Army & Security Forces 71 January 28th, 2006 01:39 AM

Old May 6th, 2004   #2
Tribal Warlord
Colonel
Pathfinder-X's Avatar
Join Date: Apr 2004
Location: Glorious Soviet Canuckistan
Posts: 1,344
Threads:
Re: U.S Army MOUT Manual

this manual is the old U.S army manual used in the 1980's, some of the contents is out of date, but one might still learn a few things from it.
if u guys want the rest of the manual i can post it later.
Pathfinder-X is offline   Reply With Quote
Old May 6th, 2004   #3
Defense Aficionado
Major General
No Avatar
Join Date: Mar 2004
Location: U.K.
Posts: 2,172
Threads:
Re: U.S Army MOUT Manual

aha great manual!! but it seems the Israelis have mastered it and they seems to blow holes through walls of attached houses and enter that way and move around streets no wonder houses collapse after they are done with an area but it is A clever technique.
adsH is offline   Reply With Quote
Old May 7th, 2004   #4
Aussie Digger
Guest
No Avatar
Posts: n/a
Threads:
Re: U.S Army MOUT Manual

A lot of this manual is commonsense, any soldier with a bit of infantry training would have a reasonable understading of these issues, but anyone who holds onto a grenade after the safety lever has released is a freaking moron, let alone for 2 seconds!!! Most grenades have a fuse that lasts somewhere between 3 and 5 seconds. As such the ability to recover a hand grenade and throw it back where it came from is extremely dubious anyway. I wouldn't bother. I'd use whatever time I had to seek cover if someone threw a grenade at me. In addition, 40mm rounds from grenade launchers have to fly through the air for a minimum of 16 metres before they arm. So you'd need to stand back a bit from a building before firing said grenade into it...
  Reply With Quote
Old May 7th, 2004   #5
Tribal Warlord
Colonel
Pathfinder-X's Avatar
Join Date: Apr 2004
Location: Glorious Soviet Canuckistan
Posts: 1,344
Threads:
Re: U.S Army MOUT Manual

Quote:
Originally Posted by Aussie Digger
A lot of this manual is commonsense, any soldier with a bit of infantry training would have a reasonable understading of these issues, but anyone who holds onto a grenade after the safety lever has released is a freaking moron, let alone for 2 seconds!!! Most grenades have a fuse that lasts somewhere between 3 and 5 seconds. As such the ability to recover a hand grenade and throw it back where it came from is extremely dubious anyway. I wouldn't bother. I'd use whatever time I had to seek cover if someone threw a grenade at me. In addition, 40mm rounds from grenade launchers have to fly through the air for a minimum of 16 metres before they arm. So you'd need to stand back a bit from a building before firing said grenade into it...
holding the grenade after the pin is pulled is dumb?? i do it all the time, it's called cooking the nade, hold it for 2 to 3 seconds then throw it, the enemy won't have the time to throw it back. and i believe the distance it takes for a 40mm round to arm is 22 meters instead of 16, maybe the rounds we use is different??
Pathfinder-X is offline   Reply With Quote
Old May 7th, 2004   #6
Forum Bouncer
Colonel
Red aRRow's Avatar
Join Date: Apr 2003
Posts: 1,409
Threads:
Hmmm nice points AD.

Pathfinder X thanks for posting the manual. For non military people like myself it was quite nice reading. I am looking forward to reading the latest manual.
Red aRRow is offline   Reply With Quote
Old May 7th, 2004   #7
Tribal Warlord
Colonel
Pathfinder-X's Avatar
Join Date: Apr 2004
Location: Glorious Soviet Canuckistan
Posts: 1,344
Threads:
Complete U.S Army Manual.

Infantry Camouflage Techniques

If the enemy can see you, he can hit you with his fire. So you must be concealed from enemy observation and have cover from enemy fire. When the terrain does not provide natural cover and concealment, you must prepare your cover and use natural and man-made materials to camouflage yourself, your equipment, and your position. This chapter provides guidance on the preparation and use of cover, concealment, and camouflage.
COVER
Cover gives protection from bullets, fragments of exploding rounds, flame, nuclear effects, and biological and chemical agents. Cover can also conceal you from enemy observation. Cover can be natural or man-made.Natural cover includes such things as logs, trees, stumps, ravines, and hollows. Manmade cover includes such things as fighting positions, trenches, walls, rubble, and craters. Even the smallest depression or fold in the ground can give some cover. Look for and use every bit of cover the terrain offers. In combat, you need protection from enemy direct and indirect fire. To get this protection in the defense, build a fighting position (man-made cover) to add to the natural cover afforded by the terrain. To get protection from enemy fire in the offense or when moving, use routes that put cover between you and the places where the enemy is known or thought to be. Use ravines, gullies, hills, wooded areas, walls, and other cover to keep the enemy from seeing and firing at you. Avoid open areas, and do not skyline yourself on hilltops and ridges.
CONCEALMENT
Concealment is anything that hides you from enemy observation. Concealment does not protect you from enemy fire. Do not think that you are protected from the enemy's fire just because you are concealed. Concealment, like cover, can also be natural or man-made. Natural concealment includes such things as bushes, grass, trees, and shadows. If possible, natural concealment should not be disturbed. Man-made concealment includes such things as battle-dress uniforms, camouflage nets, face paint, and natural material that has been moved from its original location. Man-made concealment must blend into the natural concealment provided by the terrain. Light discipline, noise discipline, movement discipline, and the use of camouflage contribute to concealment. Light discipline is controlling the use of lights at night by such things as not smoking in the open, not walking around with a flashlight on, and not using vehicle headlights. Noise discipline is taking action to deflect sounds generated by your unit (such as operating equipment) away from the enemy and, when possible, using methods to communicate that do not generate sounds (arm-and-hand signals). Movement discipline is such things as not moving about fighting positions unless necessary, and not moving on routes that lack cover and concealment. In the defense, build a well-camouflaged fighting position and avoid moving about. In the offense, conceal yourself and your equipment with camouflage and move in woods or on terrain that gives concealment. Darkness cannot hide you from enemy observation in either offense or defense. The enemy's night vision devices and other detection means let them find you in both daylight and darkness.
CAMOUFLAGE
Camouflage is anything you use to keep yourself, your equipment, and your position from looking like what they are. Both natural and man-made material can be used for camouflage. Change and improve your camouflage often. The time between changes and improvements depends on the weather and on the material used. Natural camouflage will often die, fade, or otherwise lose its effectiveness. Likewise, man-made camouflage may wear off or fade. When those things happen, you and your equipment or position may not blend with the surroundings. That may make it easy for the enemy to spot you.
CAMOUFLAGE CONSIDERATIONS
Movement draws attention. When you give arm-and-hand signals or walk about your position, your movement can be seen by the naked eye at long ranges. In the defense, stay low and move only when necessary. In the offense, move only on covered and concealed routes.
Positions must not be where the enemy expects to find them. Build positions on the side of a hill, away from road junctions or lone buildings, and in covered and concealed places. Avoid open areas.
Outlines and shadows may reveal your position or equipment to air or ground observers. Outlines and shadows can be broken up with camouflage. When moving, stay in the shadows when possible.
Shine may also attract the enemy's attention. In the dark, it may be a light such as a burning cigarette or flashlight. In daylight, it can be reflected light from polished surfaces such as shiny mess gear, a worn helmet, a windshield, a watch crystal and band, or exposed skin. A light, or its reflection, from a position may help the enemy detect the position. To reduce shine, cover your skin with clothing and face paint. However, in a nuclear attack, darkly painted skin can absorb more thermal energy and may burn more readily than bare skin. Also, dull the surfaces of equipment and vehicles with paint, mud, or some type of camouflage material.
Shape is outline or form. The shape of a helmet is easily recognized. A human body is also easily recognized. Use camouflage and concealment to breakup shapes and blend them with their surroundings. Be careful not to overdo it.
Colors of your skin, uniform, and equipment may help the enemy detect you if the colors contrast with the background. For example, a green uniform will contrast with snow-covered terrain. Camouflage yourself and your equipment to blend with the surroundings. Dispersion is the spreading of men, vehicles, and equipment over a wide area. It is usually easier for the enemy to detect soldiers when they are bunched. So, spread out. The distance between you and your fellow soldier will vary with the terrain, degree of visibility, and enemy situation. Distances will normally be set by unit leaders or by a unit's standing operating procedure (SOP).
HOW TO CAMOUFLAGE
Before camouflaging, study the terrain and vegetation of the area in which you are operating. Then pick and use the camouflage material that best blends with that area. When moving from one area to another, change camouflage as needed to blend with the surroundings. Take grass, leaves, brush, and other material from your location and apply it to your uniform and equipment and put face paint on your skin.
Fighting Positions. When building a fighting position, camouflage it and the dirt taken from it. Camouflage the dirt used as frontal, flank, rear, and overhead cover. Also camouflage the bottom of the hole to prevent detection from the air. If necessary, take excess dirt away from the position (to the rear). Do not overcamouflage. Too much camouflage material may actually disclose a position. Get your camouflage material from a wide area. An area stripped of all or most of its vegetation may draw attention. Do not wait until the position is complete to camouflage it. Camouflage the position as you build. Do not leave shiny or light-colored objects lying about. Hide mess kits, mirrors, food containers, and white underwear and towels. Do not remove your shirt in the open. Your skin may shine and be seen. Never use fires where there is a chance that the flame will be seen or the smoke will be smelled by the enemy. Also, cover up tracks and other signs of movement. When camouflage is complete, inspect the position from the enemy's side. This should be done from about 35 meters forward of the position. Then check the camouflage periodically to see that it stays natural-looking and conceals the position. When the camouflage becomes ineffective, change and improve it.
Helmets. Camouflage your helmet with the issue helmet cover or make a cover of cloth or burlap that is colored to blend with the terrain. The cover should fit loosely with the flaps folded under the helmet or left hanging. The hanging flaps may break up the helmet outline. Leaves, grass, or sticks can also be attached to the cover. Use camouflage bands, strings, burlap strips, or rubber bands to hold those in place. If there is no material for a helmet cover, disguise and dull helmet surface with irregular patterns of paint or mud.
Uniforms. Most uniforms come already camouflaged. However, it may be necessary to add more camouflage to make the uniform blend better with the surroundings. To do this, put mud on the uniform or attach leaves, grass, or small branches to it. Too much camouflage, however, may draw attention. When operating on snow-covered ground, wear overwhites (if issued) to help blend with the snow. If overwhites are not issued, use white cloth, such as white bedsheets, to get the same effect.
Skin. Exposed skin reflects light and may draw the enemy's attention. Even very dark skin, because of its natural oil, will reflect light. Use the following methods when applying camouflage face paint to camouflage the skin.When applying camouflage stick to your skin, work with a buddy (in pairs) and help each other. Apply a two-color combination of camouflage stick in an irregular pattern. Paint shiny areas (forehead, cheekbones, nose, ears, and chin) with a dark color. Paint shadow areas (around the eyes, under the nose, and under the chin) with a light color. In addition to the face, paint the exposed skin on the back of the neck, arms, and hands. Palms of hands are not normally camouflaged if arm-and-hand signals are to be used. Remove all jewelry to further reduce shine or reflection. When camouflage sticks are not issued, use burnt cork, bark, charcoal, lamp black, or light-colored mud.
Pathfinder-X is offline   Reply With Quote
Old May 7th, 2004   #8
Tribal Warlord
Colonel
Pathfinder-X's Avatar
Join Date: Apr 2004
Location: Glorious Soviet Canuckistan
Posts: 1,344
Threads:
Re: Complete U.S Army Manual.

Infantry Fighting Positions

When defending, or when temporarily halted while making an attack, you must seek cover from fire and concealment from observation. Cover and concealment are best provided by some type of fighting position. This may be an existing hole, a hastily dug prone shelter, or a well-prepared position with overhead cover. The time available for preparation determines how well you build your position.
Your fighting position must:
Allow you to fire.
Protect you from observation and direct and indirect fire.
COVER
The cover of your fighting position must be strong enough to protect you from small arms fire, indirect fire fragments, and the blast wave of nuclear explosions. The position should have frontal cover to give protection from small arms fire from the front. Natural frontal cover (trees, rocks, logs, and rubble) is best, because it is hard for the enemy to detect a position that is concealed by natural cover. If natural cover is not available, use the dirt taken from the hole you dig to build additional cover. The cover can be improved by putting the dirt in sandbags and then wetting them.
Frontal cover must be:
Thick enough (at least 46 cm [18 in] of dirt) to stop small arms fire.
High enough to protect your head when you fire from behind the cover.
Far enough in front of the hole to allow room for elbow holes and sector stakes so that you can fire to the oblique.
Long enough to give you cover and hide the muzzle blast of your rifle when you fire to the oblique.
Your fighting position should be built so that, when you come under direct fire from your front, you can move behind the frontal cover for protection and yet fire to the oblique. For all-round protection, to include protection from a nuclear attack, your position should also have overhead, flank, and rear cover. The dirt from the hole can also be used to build that cover, which protects against indirect fire that bursts overhead or to the flanks and rear of the position. Cover also guards against the effects of friendly weapons supporting from the rear, such as small arms fire or discarding sabot rounds fired from tanks. You should leave crawl spaces in the rear cover. This lets you enter and leave the position without exposing yourself to the enemy. To increase your chances of survival in a nuclear attack, you should insure that your fighting position incorporates the following considerations:
Rounded walls hold up better against a blast wave than square or rectangular walls, and rounded walls are easier to dig.
Small openings help keep out radiation. Most nuclear radiation in the bottom of the position is scattered into the position through the opening.
Deeper fighting positions place a greater thickness of shielding material or earth between you and the nuclear detonation therefore, deep positions provide greater reduction of initial radiation entering the hole. Radiation is reduced by a factor of two for each 16 inches of hole depth.
Low body positions put more dirt between you and the source of radiation. Curling upon your side or, better yet, lying on your back with knees drawn up to the chest is best. Tucked-up legs and arms tend to shield the body from radiation.
Thermal radiation enters your fighting position by line of sight or by reflection off the sides. Dark and rough materials (such as wool blankets and shelter halves) can be used to cover potential reflecting surfaces.
CONCEALMENT
If your position can be detected, it can be hit by enemy fire. If it can be hit, you can be killed in it. Therefore, your position must be so well hidden that the enemy will have a hard time detecting it even after he is in hand-grenade range.
Natural, undisturbed concealment is better than man-made concealment because:
It is already prepared.
It usually will not attract the enemy's attention.
It need not be replaced.
While digging your position, try not to disturb the natural concealment around it. Put the unused dirt from the hole behind the position and camouflage it. Camouflage material that does not have to be replaced (rocks, logs, live bushes, and grass) is best. You should not use so much camouflage that your position looks different from its surroundings. Your position must be concealed from enemy aircraft as well as from ground troops. If the position is under a bush or tree, or in a building, it is less likely to be seen from above. Leaves, straw, or grass placed on the floor of the hole will keep the fresh earth from contrasting with the ground around it. Do not use sticks, as they may stop grenades from rolling into the grenade sumps. Man-made concealment must blend with its surroundings so that it cannot be detected.
SECTORS AND FIELDS OF FIRE
The sectors of fire are those areas into which you must observe and fire. When your leader assigns you a fighting position, he should also assign you a primary and a secondary sector of fire. The primary sector of fire is to the oblique of your position, and the secondary sector of fire is to the front. To be able to see and fire into your sectors of fire, you may have to clear some vegetation and other obstructions from them. That is called clearing a field of fire.
When clearing a field of fire:
Do not disclose your position by careless or too much clearing.
Leave a thin, natural screen of vegetation to hide your position.
Cut off lower branches of large, scattered trees in sparsely wooded areas.
Clear underbrush only where it blocks your view.
Remove cut brush, limbs, and weeds so the enemy will not spot them.
Cover cuts on trees and bushes forward of your position with mud, dirt, or snow.
Leave no trails as clues for the enemy.
A field of fire to the front is needed out to the range of your weapon. A field of fire to the oblique lets you hit the attackers from an unexpected angle. It also lets you support the positions next to you. When fired to the oblique, your fire interlocks with the fire of other positions. That helps create a wall of fire that the enemy must pass through.
HOW TO BUILD FIGHTING POSITIONS
HASTY FIGHTING POSITION
When there is little time for preparation, build a hasty fighting position. It should be behind whatever cover is available. It should give frontal cover from enemy direct fire but allow firing to the front and the oblique. The term hasty does not mean that there is no digging. If there is a natural hole or ditch available, use it. If not, dig a prone shelter that will give some protection. The hole should be about one-half meter (18 to 20 in) deep. Use the dirt from the hole to build cover around the edge of the position.
TWO-MAN FIGHTING POSITION
In the defense, you and another soldier will build a two-man fighting position. Improve your position as time permits. Keep the hole small. The smaller the hole, the less likely it is that rounds, grenades, or airburst fragments will get into it. It should be large enough for you and your buddy in full combat gear. It should extend beyond the edges of the frontal cover enough to let you and your buddy observe and fire to the front. The hole is usually dug straight, but it may be curved around the frontal cover. Curving the hole around the frontal cover may be necessary in close terrain to allow better observation and fire to the front and to the next flank position. To curve the hole, simply extend one or both ends of it around the frontal cover. A curved hole lets one of you watch for the enemy to the front while the other sleeps or eats. Also, you can observe and fire to the front when not being fired at, and move back behind the frontal cover when under heavy fire. On a steep slope, a straight hole may not let you stay behind frontal cover and fire at attackers. You may have to stand up and expose yourself to the attackers' fire. To avoid such exposure, dig firing ports in each end of the hole. The ground between the firing ports will then be additional frontal cover. Dig the hole armpit deep. This lowers your profile and still lets you fire. Other dimensions should be the length of two M16s and the width of two bayonets. Leave enough distance between the hole and the frontal cover to make a shelf where you can put your elbows when firing. Dig elbow holes to keep your elbows from moving around when you fire. Your fire will then be more accurate. If you or your buddy has an automatic rifle, dig a small trench to stabilize its bipod legs. Hammer in sector stakes (right and left) to define your sectors of fire. Sector stakes prevent accidental firing into friendly positions. Tree limbs about 46 cm (18 in) long make good stakes. The stakes must be sturdy and must stick out of the ground high enough to keep your rifle from being pointed out of your sector. Hammer in aiming stakes to help you fire into dangerous approaches at night and at other times when visibility is poor. Forked tree limbs about 30 cm (12 in) long make good stakes. Put one stake near the edge of the hole to rest the stock of your rifle on. Then put another stake forward of the rear (first) stake toward each dangerous approach. The forward stakes are used to hold the rifle barrel. To change the direction of your fire from one approach to another, move the rifle barrel from one forward stake to another. Leave the stock of the rifle on the rear stake. Dig two grenade sumps in the floor (one on each end). If the enemy throws a grenade into the hole, kick or throw it into one of the sumps. The sump will absorb most of the blast. The rest of the blast will be directed straight up and out of the hole. Dig the grenade sumps:
As wide as the entrenching tool blade.
At least as deep as an entrenching tool.
As long as the position floor is wide.
For water drainage, slope the floor of the hole toward the grenade sumps. This may also . cause grenades to roll into the sumps. Build overhead cover for protection against airburst fragments. Build the overhead cover either across the center of the hole or off to its flanks. When center overhead cover would not make a position easy to detect, build it. Put support logs 10 to 15 cm (4 to 6 in) in diameter on top of each other along the entire length of the frontal and rear cover. Put logs 10 to 15 cm (4 to 6 in) in diameter side by side across the support logs as the base for the overhead cover. Put a water-repellent layer, such as C-ration boxes or a poncho, over the base logs. This helps keep water from leaking through the overhead cover. Then put 15 to 20 cm (6 to 8 in) of dirt on top of the waterproofing material. Finally, mold and camouflage the cover to blend with the terrain. When center overhead cover would make your position easy to detect, build flank over-head cover. That method gives both you and your buddy your own overhead cover. However, neither of you can observe or fire into your sectors of fire while under it.
When flank overhead cover is used, dig only one grenade sump. Dig it in the center of the floor against the back wall and slope the floor toward it. Dig out an area for flank overhead cover at each end of the position:
About 30 cm (12 in) deep.
Long enough to extend about 45 cm (18 in) beyond both sides of the hole.
About 1 meter (3 ft) wide.
Save the sod for camouflage. Next, place support logs, about 10 to 15 cm (4 to 6 in) in diameter, across the dug-out holes. This will support the rest of the overhead cover material. Put a water-repellent layer, such as C-ration boxes or a poncho, over the support logs. This helps keep water from leaking through the overhead cover. Then put 15 to 20 cm (6 to 8 in) of dirt on top of the waterproofing material. Cover the dirt with the sod and camouflage it.Then get in the hole and dig out a cave-like compartment at each end of the position under the overhead cover. Dig your compartment large enough for you and your equipment. Dig your buddy's compartment large enough for him and his equipment.In sandy or loose soil, the sides of your position may require revetments to keep them from collapsing. Use such things as mesh wire, boards, or logs for revetting. Tie anchor string, rope, or wire to the revetting material and stake them down. Drive the stakes into the ground. This hides them and keeps them from being mistaken for aiming stakes or sector stakes.
ONE-MAN FIGHTING POSITION
Sometimes you may have to build and occupy a one-man fighting position. Except for its size, a one-man position is built the same way as a two-man fighting position. The hole of a one-man position is only large enough for you and your equipment.

MACHINE GUN FIGHTING POSITION
If you are in a machine gun crew, you and the other members must build a machine gun fighting position. However, before you can start work on the position, your leader must:
Position the machine gun.
Assign it a primary (and a secondary, if required) sector of fire.
Assign it a principal direction of fire (PDF) or final protective line (FPL).
The first thing to do when building a machine gun position is to mark the position of the tripod legs. Then mark the sectors of fire with sector stakes, and trace the outline of the hole and its frontal cover on the ground. For an M60 machine gun position, dig two firing platforms for the gun. One platform is on the primary sector of fire side of the position, and the machine gun tripod is used on this platform. The other platform is on the secondary sector of fire side of the position, and the machine gun biped is used when firing on this platform. A trench must be dug for the bipod legs.The firing platforms reduce the profile of the gunner. They also reduce the height of the frontal cover needed. The firing platforms must not, however, be so low that the gun cannot be traversed across its sector of fire. In some cases, the floor of the platforms may need to be lined with sandbags. Also, sandbags may be needed on each tripod leg to keep it from moving. After the firing platforms have been dug, prepare your range card and then dig your hole. Dig the hole in the shape of an inverted T. The top of the T, however, must be longer than the shaft of the T. Dig the hole deep enough to, protect the crew and still let the gunner fire the machine gun (usually about armpit deep). Use the dirt from the hole to build frontal, flank, and rear cover. The frontal cover is built first. When the frontal cover is high and thick enough, use the rest of the dirt to build flank and rear cover. Dig three grenade sumps, one at each end of the T. Dig the grenade sumps like those in a two-man fighting position. Build the overhead cover for the position like that for a two-man fighting position.When an M60 machine gun has only one sector of fire, dig only half of the position (only one firing platform).When there is a three-man crew for an M60 machine gun, the third man (the ammunition bearer) digs a one-man fighting position. Usually, his position is on the same side of the machine gun as its FPL or PDF. From that position, he can observe and fire into the machine gun's secondary sector and, at the same time, see the gunner and assistant gunner. The ammunition bearer's position is connected to the machine gun position by a crawl trench so that he can bring ammunition to the gun or replace the gunner or the assistant gunner. In a caliber .50 machine gun position, dig only one firing platform for the gun. Dig the platform below ground level, like that for an M60 machine gun except deeper. Because of the gun's vibrations, you may have to line the floor of the platform with sandbags. Sandbags may also be needed on each tripod leg to keep it from moving. Also, the walls of the platform may need revetments. After digging the platform, prepare your range card and then dig your hole. The hole should be the shape of an L, with the platform in the center of the L. Dig the hole deep enough to protect the crew and still let the gunner fire the machine gun (usually about armpit deep). Use the dirt from the hole to build frontal, flank, and rear cover. Build the frontal cover first. When that is completed, use the rest of the dirt to build flank and rear cover. Dig two grenade sumps, one at both ends of the L, like those in a two-man fighting position. Build the overhead cover like that for a two-man fighting position.
DRAGON FIGHTING POSITION
The Dragon can be fired from either a one-man or a two-man fighting position. However, you must make some changes in the positions. Like the machine gun, a Dragon needs a range card. Prepare it before digging your hole. Dig the hole wide enough to let the muzzle end of the launcher extend 15 cm (6 in) beyond the front of the hole and the rear of the launcher extend out over the rear of the hole. This is to keep the backblast out of the hole. Dig the hole only waist deep on the side the Dragon will be fired from. This lets you move while tracking. Dig the other side of the hole armpit deep. Also, dig a small hole for the biped legs in front of the hole. Because of your height above the ground when firing the Dragon, build frontal cover high enough to hide you and, if feasible, the backblast. Build overhead cover on the flanks of the position. Build it large enough for you, your equipment, and the Dragon. Overhead cover is not usually built across the center of the hole in a Dragon position. The center overhead cover would have to be so high that it would be easy for the enemy to spot. Clear the backblast area before firing the weapon. That means checking to see if any soldiers are in the backblast area or if any walls, large trees, or other things are in a position to deflect the backblast. If the weapon is to be fired from a two-man fighting position, make sure that the other soldier in the hole is not in the backblast area.
90-MM RECOILLESS RIFLE FIGHTING POSITION
Build a 90-mm recoilless rifle (RCLR) position like a Dragon position, but dig the hole a little longer when firing to the right side of the frontal cover. That lets the assistant gunner work from the right side of the RCLR. Prepare your range card before digging the hole. Also, clear the backblast area before firing the RCLR.
LIGHT ANTITANK WEAPON (M72A2) AND FLAME ASSAULT SHOULDER WEAPON (FLASH) FIGHTING POSITION
There is no special fighting position for the M72A2 or FLASH. They can be fired from any fighting position. Before firing any of these weapons, clear the backblast area.
TRENCHES
When there is time, dig trenches to connect fighting positions. Trenches provide covered routes between positions. The depth of the trenches depends on the time and type of help and equipment available to dig them. Without engineer help, crawl trenches about 1 meter (3 feet) deep and two thirds of a meter (2 feet) wide are probably all that can be dug. Dig the trenches zigzagged so that the enemy will not be able to fire down a long section if he gets into the trench, and so that shrapnel from shell bursts will lose some of its effectiveness.
STORAGE COMPARTMENTS
A fighting position should have a place for storing equipment and ammunition. When your position has overhead cover across its center, dig a storage compartment in the bottom of the back wall. The size of the compartment depends on the amount of equipment and ammunition to be stored. When your position has flanked overhead cover, use the compartments dug for the overhead cover as storage compartments.If you dig your storage compartment large enough, it may provide extra space in which you can stretch out while sleeping. This lets you sleep inside the position and under cover.
Pathfinder-X is offline   Reply With Quote
Old May 7th, 2004   #9
Tribal Warlord
Colonel
Pathfinder-X's Avatar
Join Date: Apr 2004
Location: Glorious Soviet Canuckistan
Posts: 1,344
Threads:
Re: Complete U.S Army Manual.

Infantry Movement Techniques

Normally, you will spend more time moving than fighting. You must use proper movement techniques to avoid contact with the enemy when you are not prepared for contact. The fundamentals of movement discussed in this chapter provide techniques that all soldiers should learn. These techniques should be practiced until they become second nature.
MOVEMENT TECHNIQUES
Your unit's ability to move depends on your movement skills and those of your fellow soldiers. Use the following techniques to avoid being seen or heard by the enemy:
Camouflage yourself and your equipment.
Tape your dog tags together and to the chain so they cannot slide or rattle. Tape or pad the parts of your weapon and equipment that rattle or are so loose that they may snag (the tape or padding must not interfere with the operation of the weapon or equipment). Jump up and down and listen for rattles.
Wear soft, well-fitting clothes.
Do not carry unnecessary equipment. Move from covered position to revered position (taking no longer than 3 to 5 seconds between positions).
Stop, look, and listen before moving. Look for your next position before leaving a position.
Look for covered and concealed routes on which to move.
Change direction slightly from time to time when moving through tall grass.
Stop, look, and listen when birds or animals are alarmed (the enemy may be nearby).
Use battlefield noises, such as weapon noises, to conceal movement noises.
Cross roads and trails at places that have the most cover and concealment (large culverts, low spots, curves, or bridges).
Avoid steep slopes and places with loose dirt or stones.
Avoid cleared, open areas and tops of hills and ridges.
METHODS OF MOVEMENT
In addition to walking, you may move in one of three other methods--low crawl, high crawl, or rush. The low crawl gives you the lowest silhouette. Use it to cross places where the concealment is very low and enemy fire or observation prevents you from getting up. Keep your body flat against the ground. With your firing hand, grasp your weapon sling at the upper sling--swivel. Let the front handguard rest on your forearm (keeping the muzzle off the ground), and let the weapon butt drag on the ground. To move, push your arms forward and pull your firing side leg forward. Then pull with your arms and push with your leg. Continue this throughout the move. The high crawl lets you move faster than the low crawl and still gives you a low silhouette. Use this crawl when there is good concealment but enemy fire prevents you from getting up. Keep your body off the ground and resting on your forearms and lower legs. Cradle your weapon in your arms and keep its muzzle off the ground. Keep your knees well behind your buttocks so your body will stay low. To move, alternately advance your right elbow and left knee, then your left elbow and right knee. The rush is the fastest way to move from one position to another. Each rush should last from 3 to 5 seconds. The rushes are kept short to keep enemy machine gunners or riflemen from tracking you. However, do not stop and hit the ground in the open just because 5 seconds have passed. Always try to hit the ground behind some cover. Before moving, pick out your next covered and concealed position and the best route to it.
Make your move from the prone position as follows:
Slowly raise your head and pick your next position and the route to it.
Slowly lower your head.
Draw your arms into your body (keeping your elbows in).
Pull your right leg forward.
Raise your body by straightening your arms.
Get up quickly.
Run to the next position.
When you are ready to stop moving, do the following:
Plant both of your feet.
Drop to your knees (at the same time slide a hand to the butt of your rifle).
Fall forward, breaking the fall with the butt of the rifle.
Go to a prone firing position.
If you have been firing from one position for some time, the enemy may have spotted you and may be waiting for you to come up from behind cover. So, before rushing forward, roll or crawl a short distance from your position. By coming up from another spot, you may fool an enemy who is aiming at one spot, waiting for you to rise. When the route to your next position is through an open area, rush by zigzagging. If necessary, hit the ground, roll right or left, then rush again.
MOVING WITH STEALTH
Moving with stealth means moving quietly, slowly, and carefully. This requires great patience.
To move with stealth, use the following techniques:
Hold your rifle at port arms (ready position).
Make your footing sure and solid by keeping your body's weight on the foot on the ground while stepping.
Raise the moving leg high to clear brush or grass.
Gently let the moving foot down toe first, with your body's weight on the rear leg.
Lower the heel of the moving foot after the toe is in a solid place.
Shift your body's weight and balance to the forward foot before moving the rear foot.
Take short steps to help maintain balance.
At night, and when moving through dense vegetation, avoid making noise. Hold your weapon with one hand, and keep the other hand forward, feeling for obstructions.
When going into a prone position, use the following techniques:
Hold your rifle with one hand and crouch slowly.
Feel for the ground with your free hand to make sure it is clear of mines, tripwires, and other hazards.
Lower your knees, one at a time, until your body's weight is on both knees and your free hand.
Shift your weight to your free hand and opposite knee.
Raise your free leg up and back, and lower it gently to that side.
Move the other leg into position the same way.
Roll quietly into a prone position.
Use the following techniques when crawling:
Crawl on your hands and knees. Hold your rifle in your firing hand. Use your nonfiring hand to feel for and make clear spots for your hands and knees to move to.
Move your hands and knees to those spots, and put them down softly.
IMMEDIATE ACTIONS WHILE MOVING
This section furnishes guidance for the immediate actions you should take when reacting to enemy indirect fire and flares.
REACTING TO INDIRECT FIRE
If you come under indirect fire while moving, quickly look to your leader for orders. He will either tell you to run out of the impact area in a certain direction or will tell you to follow him. If you cannot see your leader, but can see other team members, follow them. If alone, or if you cannot see your leader or the other team members, run out of the area in a direction away from the incoming fire. It is hard to move quickly on rough terrain, but the terrain may provide good cover. In such terrain, it may be best to take cover and wait for flares to burn out. After they burn out, move out of the area quickly.
REACTING TO GROUND FLARES
The enemy puts out ground flares as warning devices. He sets them off himself or attaches tripwires to them for you to trip on and set them off. He usually puts the flares in places he can watch. If you are caught in the light of a ground flare, move quickly out of the lighted area. The enemy will know where the ground flare is and will be ready to fire into that area. Move well away from the lighted area. While moving out of the area, look for other team members. Try to follow or join them to keep the team together.
REACTING TO AERIAL FLARES
The enemy uses aerial flares to light up vital areas. They can be set off like ground flares; fired from hand projectors, grenade launchers, mortars, and artillery; or dropped from aircraft. If you hear the firing of an aerial flare while you are moving, hit the ground (behind cover if possible) while the flare is rising and before it bursts and illuminates. If moving where it is easy to blend with the background (such as in a forest) and you are caught in the light of an aerial flare, freeze in place until the flare burns out. If you are caught in the light of an aerial flare while moving in an open area, immediately crouch low or lie down. If you are crossing an obstacle, such as a barbed-wire fence or a wall, and get caught in the light of an aerial flare, crouch low and stay down until the flare burns out. The sudden light of a bursting flare may temporarily blind both you and the enemy. When the enemy uses a flare to spot you, he spoils his own night vision. To protect your night vision, close one eye while the flare is burning. When the flare burns out, the eye that was closed will still have its night vision.
MOVING WITHIN A TEAM
You will usually move as a member of a team. Small teams, such as infantry fire teams, normally move in a wedge formation. Each soldier in the team has a set position in the wedge, determined by the type weapon he carries. That position, however, may be changed by the team leader to meet the situation. The normal distance between soldiers is 10 meters. You may have to make a temporary change in the wedge formation when moving through close terrain. The soldiers in the sides of the wedge close into a single file when moving in thick brush or through a narrow pass. After passing through such an area, they should spread out, again forming the wedge. You should not wait for orders to change the formation or the interval. You should change automatically and stay in visual contact with the other team members and the team leader. The team leader leads by setting the example. His standing order is, FOLLOW ME AND DO AS I DO. When he moves to the left, you should move to the left. When he gets down, you should get down. When he fires, you should fire. When visibility is limited, control during movement may become difficult. Two l-inch horizontal strips of luminous tape, sewn directly on the rear of the helmet camouflage band with a l-inch space between them, are a device for night identification. Night identification for your patrol cap could be two l-inch by 1/2-inch strips of luminous tape sewn vertically, directly on the rear of the cap. They should be centered, with the bottom edge of each tape even with the bottom edge of the cap and with a l-inch space between two tapes.
FIRE AND MOVEMENT
When a unit makes contact with the enemy, it normally starts firing at and moving toward the enemy. Sometimes the unit may move away from the enemy. That technique is called fire and movement. It is conducted either to close with and destroy the enemy, or to move away from the enemy so as to break contact with him. The firing and moving take place at the same time. There is a fire element and a movement element. These elements may be single soldiers, buddy teams, fire teams, or squads. Regardless of the size of the elements, the action is still fire and movement. The fire element covers the move of the movement element by firing at the enemy. This helps keep the enemy from firing back at the movement element. The movement element moves either to close with the enemy or to reach a better position from which to fire at him. The movement element should not move until the fire element is firing. Depending on the distance to the enemy position and on the available cover, the fire element and the movement element switch roles as needed to keep moving. Before the movement element moves beyond the supporting range of the fire element (the distance within which the weapons of the fire element can fire and support the movement element), it should take a position from which it can fire at the enemy. The movement element then becomes the next fire element and the fire element becomes the next movement element. If your team makes contact, your team leader should tell you to fire or to move. He should also tell you where to fire from, what to fire at, or where to move to. When moving, use the low crawl, high crawl, or rush.

MOVING WITH TANKS
You will often have to move with tanks. When you must move as fast as the tanks, you should ride on them. However, riding on a tank makes you vulnerable to all types of fire. It also reduces the tank's maneuverability and the ability to traverse its turret. If contact is made with the enemy, you must dismount from the tank at once. To mount a tank, first get permission from the tank commander. Then mount from the tank's right front, not its left side where the coax machinegun is mounted. Once mounted, move to the rear deck, stand, and hold on to the bustle rack. If there is not enough room for you on the rear deck, you may have to stand beside the turret and hold onto a hatch or hatch opening. When riding on a tank, be alert for trees that may knock you off and obstacles that may cause the tank to turn suddenly. Also be alert for enemy troops that may cause the tank to travers its turret quickly and fire. Riding on a tank is always hazardous and should be done only when the risks of riding are outweighed by the advantages of riding.
Pathfinder-X is offline   Reply With Quote
Old May 7th, 2004   #10
Tribal Warlord
Colonel
Pathfinder-X's Avatar
Join Date: Apr 2004
Location: Glorious Soviet Canuckistan
Posts: 1,344
Threads:
Re: Complete U.S Army Manual.

Infantry Observation Techniques

During all types of operations, you will be looking for the enemy. However, there will be times when you will be posted in an observation post (OP) to watch for enemy activity. An OP is a position from which you watch an assigned sector of observation and report all activity seen or heard in your sector. provides guidance on collecting and reporting information learned by observation.
HOW TO OBSERVE
This section discusses the techniques you will use for day and night observation.
DAY OBSERVATION
In daylight, use the visual search technique to search terrain. Do this in two steps:
Step 1. Make a quick, overall search of the entire sector for obvious targets and unnatural colors, outlines, or movements. Look first at the area just in front of your position, and then quickly scan the entire area out to the maximum range you want to observe. If the sector is wide, divide it and search each subsector as in Step 2.
Step 2. Observe overlapping, 50-meterwide strips, alternating from left to right and right to left, until you have searched the entire sector. When you see a suspicious spot, search it well.
NIGHT OBSERVATION
At night, use anyone of three night observation techniques to search terrain.
Dark Adaptation Technique. First, let your eyes become adjusted to the darkness. Do so by staying either in a dark area for about 30 minutes, or in a red-lighted area for about 20 minutes followed by about 10 minutes in a dark area. The red-lighted method may save time by allowing you to get orders, check equipment, or do some other job before moving into darkness.
Off-Center Vision Technique. Focus your attention on an object but look slightly away from it. The object will be more visible this way than when you look straight at it.
Scanning Technique. Again focus your attention on an object, but do not look directly at it. Now move your eyes in short, abrupt, and irregular movements around it, pausing a few seconds after each move.
THINGS TO LOOK AND LISTEN FOR
In trying to find the enemy in a sector of observation, look and listen for these signs of his presence:
Sounds.
Dust or vehicle exhaust.
Movement.
Positions.
Outlines or shadows.
Shine or glare.
Contrasting colors.
SOUNDS
Listen for such things as footsteps, limbs or sticks breaking, leaves rustling, men coughing, and equipment or vehicle sounds. These may be hard to distinguish from other battle-field and animal sounds.
Sounds can alert you to the direction or general location of the enemy. They may not pinpoint his exact location. However, if a sound alerts you, you are more apt to spot the enemy.
DUST OR VEHICLE EXHAUST
Moving foot soldiers or vehicles often raise dust. Vehicle exhaust smoke also rises. You can spot dust and vehicle smoke at long ranges.
MOVEMENT
Look for movement in your sector. Use the visual search technique.
POSITIONS
Look for enemy positions in obvious places, such as road junctions, hilltops, and lone buildings. Also look at areas with cover and concealment, such as woods and draws.
OUTLINES OR SHADOWS
Look for outlines or shadows of enemy soldiers, equipment, vehicles, or guns. The enemy may use the shadows of trees or buildings to hide himself and his equipment. Look for him in shaded areas.
SHINE OR GLARE
In darkness, look for light sources such as burning cigarettes, headlights, or flashlights. In daylight, look for reflected light or glare from smooth, polished surfaces such as windshields, headlights, mess gear, watch crystals, or uncamouflaged skin.
CONTRASTING COLORS
Look for contrasts between background color and the colors of uniforms, equipment, and skin. For example, a soldier's T-shirt or towel may contrast with its background.
RANGE ESTIMATION
You must often estimate ranges. Your estimates will be easier to make and more accurate if you use the 100-meter unit-of-measure method, the appearance-of-objects method, or the flash-and-sound method. This section discusses the use of these methods.
100-METER UNIT-OF-MEASURE METHOD (DAYTIME)
Picture a distance of 100 meters on the ground. For ranges up to 500 meters, count the number of 100-meter lengths between the two points you want to measure. Beyond 500 meters, pick a point halfway to the target, count the number of 100-meter lengths to the halfway point, and then double that number to get the range to the target. Sloping ground changes the appearance of l00-meter lengths. Ground that slopes upward makes them look longer than 100 meters, and ground that slopes downward makes them look shorter than 100 meters. Thus, the tendency is to underestimate 100-meter lengths on upslopes and overestimate them on downslopes. The accuracy of the 100-meter method depends on how much ground is visible. This is most true at long ranges. If a target is at a range of 500 meters or more, and you can only see part of the ground between yourself and the target, it is hard to use this method with accuracy.
APPEARANCE-OF-OBJECTS METHOD (DAYTIME)
This method is a way to estimate range by the apparent size and detail of an object. It is a common method that is used in everyday life. For example, a motorist trying to pass another car judges the distance of oncoming cars based on their apparent size. He is not interested in exact distances, but only in having enough room to safely pass the car in front of him. Suppose he knows that at a distance of 1 mile an oncoming car appears to be 1 inch wide and 2 inches high, with a half inch between the headlights. Then, any time he sees an oncoming car that fits those dimensions, he knows it is about 1 mile away. The same technique can be used to estimate ranges on the battlefield. If you know the apparent size and detail of troops and equipment at known ranges, then you can compare those characteristics to similar objects at unknown ranges. When the characteristics match, the range does also. To use the appearance-of-objects method, you must be familiar with characteristic details of objects as they appear at various ranges. As you must be able to see those details to make the method work, anything that limits visibility (such as weather, smoke, or darkness) will limit the effectiveness of this method.
COMBINATION OF METHODS
Battlefield conditions are not always ideal for estimating ranges. If the terrain limits the use of the 100-meter unit-of-measure method, and poor visibility limits the use of the appearance-of-objects method, you may have to use a combination of methods. For example, if you cannot see all of the terrain out to the target, you can still estimate distance from the apparent size and detail of the target itself. A haze may obscure the target details, but you may still be able to judge its size or use the 100-meter method. By using either one or both of the methods, you should arrive at a figure close to the true range.
FLASH-AND-SOUND METHOD (BEST AT NIGHT)
Sound travels through air at 300 meters (1,100 feet) per second. That makes it possible to estimate distance if you can both see and hear a sound-producing action. When you see the flash or smoke of a weapon, or the dust it raises, immediately start counting. Stop counting when you hear the sound associated with the action seen. The number at which you stop should be multiplied by three. This gives you the approximate distance to the weapon in hundreds of meters. If you stop at one, the distance is about 300 meters. If you stop at three, the distance is about 900 meters. When you must count higher than nine, start over again after counting nine (counting higher numbers throws the timing off).
Pathfinder-X is offline   Reply With Quote
Old May 7th, 2004   #11
Tribal Warlord
Colonel
Pathfinder-X's Avatar
Join Date: Apr 2004
Location: Glorious Soviet Canuckistan
Posts: 1,344
Threads:
Re: Complete U.S Army Manual.

Infantry Urban Fighting Techniques

Successful combat operations in urban areas require skills that are unique to this type of fighting. This appendix discusses some of those skills.
HOW TO MOVE
Movement in urban areas is a fundamental skill that you must master. To minimize exposure to enemy fire while moving:
Do not silhouette yourself, stay low, avoid open areas such as streets, alleys, and parks.
Select your next covered position before moving.
Conceal your movements by using smoke, buildings, rubble, or foliage.
Move rapidly from one position to another.
Do not mask your overwatching/covering fire when you move; and stay alert and ready.
HOW TO CROSS A WALL
Always cross a wall rapidly. But first, find a low spot to cross and visually reconnoiter the other side of the wall to see if it is clear of obstacles and the enemy. Next, quickly roll over the wall, keeping a low silhouette. The rapid movement and low silhouette keep the enemy from getting a good shot at you.
HOW TO MOVE AROUND A CORNER
Before moving around a corner, check out the area beyond it to see if it is clear of obstacles and the enemy. Do not expose yourself when checking out that area. Lie flat on the ground and do not expose your weapon beyond the corner. With your steel helmet on, look around the corner at ground level only enough to see around it. Do not expose your head any more than necessary. If there are no obstacles or enemy present, stay low and move around the corner.
HOW TO MOVE PAST A WINDOW
When moving past a window on the first floor of a building, stay below the window level. Take care not to silhouette yourself in the window, and stay close to the side of the building. When moving past a window in a basement, use the same basic techniques used in passing a window on the first floor. However, instead of staying below the window, step or jump over it without exposing your legs.
HOW TO MOVE PARALLEL TO A BUILDING
When you must move parallel to a building, use smoke for concealment and have someone to overwatch your move. Stay close to the side of the building. Use shadows if possible, and stay low. Move quickly from covered position to covered position.
HOW TO CROSS OPEN AREAS
Whenever possible, you should avoid kill zones such as streets, alleys, and parks. They are natural kill zones for enemy machine guns. When you must cross an open area, do it quickly. Use the shortest route across the area. Use smoke to conceal your move and have someone overwatch you. If you must go from point A to point C, as depicted in the illustration, do not move from point A straight to point C. This is the longest route across the open area and gives the enemy more time to track and hit you. Instead of going from point A straight to point C, select a place (point B) to move to, using the shortest route across the open area. Once on the other side of the open area, move to point C using the techniques already discussed.
HOW TO MOVE IN A BUILDING
When moving in a building, do not silhouette yourself in doors and windows. Move past them as discussed for outside movement. If forced to use a hallway, do not present a large target to the enemy. Hug the wall and get out of the hallway quickly.
HOW TO ENTER A BUILDING
When entering a building, take every precaution to get into it with minimum exposure to enemy fire and observation. Some basic rules are:
Select an entry point before moving.
Avoid windows and doors.
Use smoke for concealment.
Make new entry points by using demolitions or tank rounds.
Throw a hand grenade through the entry point before entering.
Quickly follow the explosion of the hand grenade.
Have your buddy overwatch you as you enter the building.
Enter at the highest level possible.
HIGH LEVEL ENTRIES
The preferred way to clear a building is to clear from the top down. That is why you should enter at the highest level possible. If a defending enemy is forced down to the ground level, he may leave the building, thus exposing himself to the fires outside the building. If the enemy is forced up to the top floor, he may fight even harder than normal or escape over the roofs of other buildings. You can use ropes, ladders, drain pipes, vines, helicopters, or the roofs and windows of adjoining buildings to reach the top floor or roof of a building. In some cases, you can climb onto another soldier's shoulders and pull yourself up. You can attach a grappling hook to one end of a rope and throw the hook to the roof, where it can snag something to hold the rope in place.
LOW LEVEL ENTRIES
There will be times when you can't enter from an upper level or the roof. In such cases, entry at the ground floor may be your only way to get into the building. When making low level entries, avoid entries through windows and doors as much as possible. They are often booby trapped and are probably covered by enemy fire.
HOW TO USE HAND GRENADES
When fighting in built-up areas, use hand grenades to clear rooms, hallways, and buildings. Throw a hand grenade before entering a door, window, room, hall, stairwell, or any other entry point. Before throwing a hand grenade, let it cook off for 2 seconds. That keeps the enemy from throwing it back before it explodes. To cook off a hand grenade remove your thumb from the safety lever; allow the lever to rotate out and away from the grenade; then count one thousand one, one thousand two, and throw it. The best way to put a grenade into an upper-story opening is to use a grenade launcher. When you throw a hand grenade into an opening, stay close to the building, using it for cover. Before you throw the hand grenade, select a safe place to move to in case the hand grenade does not go into the opening or in case the enemy throws it back. Once you throw the hand grenade, take cover. After the hand grenade explodes, move into the building quickly.
HOW TO USE FIGHTING POSITIONS
Fighting positions in urban areas are different from those in other types of terrain. They are not always prepared as discussed in In some cases, you must use hasty fighting positions which are no more than whatever cover is available.
CORNERS OF BUILDINGS
When using a corner of a building as a fighting position, you must be able to fire from either shoulder. Fire from the shoulder that lets you keep your body close to the wall of the building and expose as little of yourself as possible. If possible, fire from the prone position.
WALLS
When firing from behind a wall, fire around it if possible, not over it. Firing around it reduces the chance of being seen by the enemy. Always stay low, close to the wall, and fire from the shoulder that lets you stay behind cover.
WINDOWS
When using a window as a fighting position, do not use a standing position, as it exposes most of your body. Standing may also silhouette you against a light-colored interior wall or a window on the other side of the building. Do not let the muzzle of your rifle extend beyond the window, as that may give away your position. The enemy may see the muzzle or the flash of the rifle. The best way to fire from a window is to get well back into the room. That prevents the muzzle or flash from being seen. Kneel to reduce exposure. To improve the cover provided by a window, barricade the window but leave a small hole to fire through. Also barricade other windows around your position. That keeps the enemy from knowing which windows are being used for fighting positions. Use boards from the interior walls of the building or any other material to barricade the window. The barricade material should be put on in an irregular pattern so that the enemy cannot determine which window is being used. Place sandbags below and on the sides of the window to reinforce it and to add cover. Remove all the glass in the window to prevent injury from flying glass.
PEAKS OF ROOFS
A peak of a roof can provide a vantage point and cover for a fighting position. It is especially good for a sniper position. When firing from a rooftop, stay low and do not silhouette yourself. A chimney, smokestack, or any other structure extending from a roof can provide a base behind which you can prepare a position. If possible, remove some of the roofing material so that you can stand inside the building on a beam or platform with only your head and shoulders above the roof. Use sandbags to provide extra cover. If there are no structures extending from a roof, prepare the position from underneath the roof and on the enemy side. Remove enough of the roofing material to let you see and cover your sector through it. Use sandbags to add cover. Stand back from the opening and do not let the muzzle or flash of your rifle show through the hole. The only thing that should be noticeable to the enemy is the missing roofing material.
LOOPHOLES
A loophole blown or cut in a wall provides cover for a fighting position. Using loopholes reduces the number of windows that have to be used. Cut or blow several loopholes in a wall so the enemy cannot tell which one you are using. When using a loophole, stay back from it. Do not let the muzzle or flash of your rifle show through it. To reinforce a loophole and add cover, put sandbags around it. If you will be firing from a prone position on the second floor, put sandbags on the floor to lie on. That will protect you from explosions on the first floor. Use a table with sandbags on it or some other sturdy structure to provide overhead cover. That will protect you from falling debris.
Pathfinder-X is offline   Reply With Quote
Old May 7th, 2004   #12
Tribal Warlord
Colonel
Pathfinder-X's Avatar
Join Date: Apr 2004
Location: Glorious Soviet Canuckistan
Posts: 1,344
Threads:
Re: Complete U.S Army Manual.

Infantry Weapons Procedures

You must know how to fire your weapon and how to control your fire. This appendix covers the characteristics of the weapons you will be using and discusses characteristics of fire and methods of fire control.
WEAPONS
BERETTA PISTOL
This pistol fires 9-mm rounds. It is a semiautomatic, recoil-operated magazine-fed handgun. It fires one round each time the trigger is pulled. Its magazine holds fifteen rounds. The top round is stripped from the magazine and chambered by the forward movement of the slide. When the last round in the magazine has been fired, the slide stays to the rear.
M16A2 RIFLE
This rifle fires 5.56-mm rounds. It is magazine-fed and gas-operated. It can shoot either semiautomatic or burst fire through the use of a selector lever. The most stable firing positions (those which allow the most accurate fire) are the prone supported or standing supported for semiautomatic fire and the prone bipod supported for burst fire.
M248 SAW
This machine gun fires 5.56-mm rounds. It can be magazine or belt-fed , gas-operated, and automatic. It has an attached bipod and a separate tripod mount. The prone position, using the M122 tripod and the traversing and elevating mechanism, allows the most accurate fire. Some vehicular mounts, such as the pedestal mount on the M151 1/4-ton vehicle, are available for this gun. When the gunner is standing, the gun may be fired from the hip, underarm, or shoulder firing position.
40-MM GRENADE LAUNCHER, M203
This grenade launcher (GL) is attached to an M16A1 rifle. The rifle has already been discussed. The GL is a single-shot, breech-loaded, pump-action weapon. It fires a variety of rounds. It can be used to suppress targets in defilade. The GL can be used to suppress or disable armored vehicles, except tanks. Its HEDP round can penetrate concrete, timber, sandbagged weapon positions, and some buildings. Other rounds can be used to illuminate and signal. The most stable firing positions are the standing supported and the prone supported. M433 High-Explosive Dual Purpose (HEDP) Round. This round can penetrate 5 cm (2 in) of armorplate, 30 cm (12 in) of pine logs, 40 cm (16 in) of concrete blocks, or 50 cm (20 in) of sandbags at ranges up to 400 meters. It has a 5-meter casualty radius against exposed troops. M651 CS Round. This chemical round is used to drive the enemy from bunkers or enclosed positions in built-up areas. M583 White Star Parachute/M661 Green Star Parachute/M662 Red Star Parachute Rounds. These are used to signal and illuminate. One can be placed 300 meters forward of a squad to illuminate an area 200 meters in diameter for 40 seconds. M585 White Star Cluster/M663 Green Star Cluster/M664 Red Star Cluster Rounds. They are used to signal. M713 Red Ground Smoke/M715 Green Smoke/M716 Yellow Smoke Rounds. These are used to mark locations, not for screening.
LIGHT ANTITANK WEAPON (LAW)
This is a shoulder-fired, short-range antitank weapon. The most stable firing positions for firing LAWs are the standing supported, prone, and prone supported.
The M72A2 LAW consists of a 66-mm HEAT (high explosive antitank) rocket in a disposable fiberglass and aluminum launcher tube. Its light weight and its ability to penetrate more than 30 cm (12 in) of armor make it useful against enemy armor, bunkers, and other hard targets out to a range of 200 meters. The four methods of engagement with a LAW are single, sequence, pair, and volley firing. The two best methods of engagement are volley firing and pair firing.
Single firing. In single firing, you fire at a target with only one LAW. This method is used only at ranges of 50 meters or less. Beyond that range, single firing is ineffective, as the chance of a first-round hit is low.
Sequence firing. In sequence firing, you prepare several launchers for firing. After firing the first LAW, note its impact. If you get a hit, continue to fire, using the same sight picture, until the target is destroyed. If the first round is a miss, adjust the range and lead of succeeding rounds until you get a hit. Then continue to fire until the target is destroyed.
Pair firing. In pair firing, you and another gunner prepare two or more LAWs each, and fire at a target one at a time. You swap information when firing at the target. The gunner seeing a target identifies it and gives the estimated range and lead he will use (for example, TANK, 150 METERS, FAST TARGET), then fires. If the first gunner misses, the second gunner quickly announces a revised estimate of range and lead (as appropriate) and fires. Both gunners continue exchanging range and lead information until one gets a hit. Once the range and lead are determined, gunners fire at the target until it is destroyed. Pair firing is preferred over sequence firing, as it lets the gunners get hits fasten the gunner firing the second round can be ready to fire as soon as the first round impacts. In sequence firing, you must get another LAW, establish a sight picture, and fire. Pair firing also has the advantage of having two gunners track the target at one time.
Volley firing. In volley firing, you and one or more other gunners fire at once. Before firing, each gunner prepares one or more LAWs Gunners fire on command or on signal until the target is destroyed for example, TANK, 100 METERS, SLOW TARGET, VOLLEY FIRE, READY, AIM, FIRE. Volley fire is used only when the range to the target and the lead have been determined. Range can be determined by map, by pacing, or by the results of pair firing after a target has been hit. The volley method is best because more rounds are fired at a target at one time. That increases the chance of a hit.
M202A1, MULTISHOT ROCKET LAUNCHER 66-MM (FLASH)
This is a lightweight, four-tube, 66-mm rocket launcher (RL). Aim and fire it from the right shoulder in the standing, kneeling, or prone position. It can fire a single rocket or up to four rockets semiautomatically at a rate of one rocket per second. It is reloaded with a new clip of four rockets. The brilliant splash of the bursting incendiary warhead makes it a good weapon to suppress enemy rocket gunners. When it impacts near enemy vehicles, it will make them button up. The most stable position for firing the FLASH is the standing supported position. When you fire it from a fighting position, there are two limitations. First, overhead cover can limit the elevation of the RL and therefore the range. Second, when elevating the RL, you must make sure that the rear of the launcher is outside the hole so that its backblast is not deflected on you.
M47 DRAGON MEDIUM ANTITANK WEAPON
This is a wire-guided missile system. It is man-portable and shoulder-fired. The Dragon actually rests on your shoulder and the front bipod legs. It has two major components, the tracker and the round, The round (the expendable part of the system) has two major parts, the launcher and the missile. These are pack-aged together for handling and shipping. The launcher is both the handling and carrying container and the tube from which the missile is fired. The tracker is the reusable part of the system. It is designed for fast, easy detachment from the round. To fire the Dragon, look through the sight in the tracker, put the crosshairs on the target, and fire. Keep the crosshairs on the target throughout the missile's flight. The missile is continuously guided along your line-of-sight. The tracker detects deviations from the line-of-sight and sends corrections to the missile by a wire link.
CALIBER .50 MACHINE GUN
This gun is belt-fed and recoil-operated. You can fire a single shot and automatic from the M3 tripod mount or the M63 antiaircraft mount. Fire bursts of 9 to 15 rounds to hit ground targets from a stationary position. To fire at aircraft, use a continuous burst, rather than several short bursts. While firing on the move, "walk" long bursts into the target. You can suppress enemy antitank guided missile (ATGM) gunners, vehicles, and troops with a heavy volume of fire from the caliber .50 machine gun until a friendly maneuver element can destroy or bypass the enemy.
M67 90-MM RECOILLESS RIFLE (RCLR)
This RCLR is a breech-loaded, singleshot, man-portable, crew-served weapon. You can use it in both antitank and antipersonnel roles. You can fire it from the ground, using the bipod or the monopod, or from the shoulder. The most stable firing position is the prone position.
CHARACTERISTICS OF FIRE
TRAJECTORY
This is the path of a projectile from a weapon to the point of impact.
At ranges out to 300 meters, the trajectory of rifle fire is almost flat. For greater ranges, you must raise the rifle muzzle, thus raising the height of the trajectory. The GL has a high trajectory that is different from that of a rifle. The GL muzzle velocity is slow when compared to that of a rifle, but it is fast enough to have a flat trajectory out to 150 meters. For targets at greater ranges (150 to 350 meters), you must hold the GL about 20 degrees above the horizontal. This results in a higher trajectory and increases the time of flight of the grenade to its target. Because the trajectory is high and the time of flight long at ranges beyond 150 meters, winds may blow the grenade off course. As a grenadier, you must compensate for this.
DANGER SPACE
This is the space between a weapon and its target where the trajectory does not rise above the average height of a standing man (1.8 meters). It includes the beaten zone.
DEAD SPACE
Any area within a weapon's sector that cannot be hit by fire from that weapon is dead space.
CONE OF FIRE
This is the cone-shaped pattern formed by the paths of rounds in a group or burst. The paths of the rounds differ and form a cone because of gun vibration, wind changes, and variations in ammunition.
BEATEN ZONE
The area on the ground where the rounds in a cone of fire fall is the beaten zone.
CASUALTY RADIUS
This is the area around a projectile's point of impact in which soldiers could be killed or injured by either the concussion or fragmentation of the projectile.
CLASSES OF FIRE
Fire is classified with respect to the ground and the target.
Fire with respect to the ground is:
Grazing fire when most of the rounds do not rise above 1 meter from the ground.
Plunging fire when the path of the rounds is higher than a standing man except in its beaten zone. Plunging fire is attained when firing at long ranges, when firing from high ground to low ground, and when firing into a hillside.
Fire with respect to the target is:
Frontal fire when the rounds are fired directly at the front of the target.
Flanking fire when the rounds are fired at the flank of the target.
Oblique fire when the long axis of the beaten zone is oblique to the long axis of the target.
Enfilade fire when the long axis of the beaten zone is the same as the long axis of the target. It can be either frontal, flanking, or oblique. It is the best type of fire with respect to the target because it makes the best use of the beaten zone.
SUPPRESSIVE FIRE
Fire directed at the enemy to keep him from seeing, tracking, or firing at the target is suppressive fire. It can be direct or indirect fire. Smoke placed on the enemy to keep him from seeing targets is also suppressive fire.
FIRE DISTRIBUTION
When firing at an enemy position, your leader will distribute his unit's fire to cover the position. There are two ways to distribute fire on a target--point fire and area fire.
METHODS OF DISTRIBUTION
Point Fire. This is fire directed at one point; for example, an entire team firing at one bunker.
Area Fire. This is fire directed to cover an area both laterally and in depth. If your leader wants fire on a woodline, he may first fire tracers to mark its center. Then, he may have the men on his left fire to the left of the tracers and those on his right fire to the right of the tracers. This is the best and quickest way to hit all parts of an area target. In area fire, you will fire at likely enemy positions rather than a general area. Fire first at that part of the target relative to your position in the team. Then distribute your fire over an area a few meters to the right and left of your first shot.
COVERING THE TARGET AREA
AUTOMATIC RIFLEMAN
The part of the target which you, as an automatic rifleman, can hit depends on your position and the range to the target. When possible, you cover the entire target. When firing automatic fire, you tend to fire high; so fire low at first and then work up to the target.
MACHINE GUNNER
As a machine gunner, fire into the part of the target assigned to you by your leader.
DRAGON GUNNER
As a Dragon gunner, fire into the part of the target assigned to you by your leader. Fire only at targets such as armored vehicles and key weapons. If there are no Dragon targets, fire your rifle.
GRENADIER
As a grenadier, fire your first grenade into the center of the target. Then distribute your shots over the remaining target area.
FIRE CONTROL
WAYS TO COMMUNICATE FIRE CONTROL
Your leader will control your fire. The noise and confusion of battle will limit the use of some methods of control, so he will use the way or combination of ways that does the job.
Sound. This includes both voice and devices such as whistles and horns. Sound signals are good only for short distances. Their range and reliability y are reduced by battle noise, weather, terrain, and vegetation. Voice communications may come directly from your leader to you or they may be passed from soldier to soldier.
Prearranged fire. In prearranged fire, your leader tells you to start firing once the enemy reaches a certain point or terrain feature. When using prearranged fire, you do not have to wait for an order to start firing.
Prearranged signals. In this method, your leader gives a prearranged signal when he wants you to start firing. This can be either a visual signal or a sound signal. Start firing immediately when you get the signal.
Soldier-initiated fire. This is used when there is no time to wait for orders from your leader.
Standing operating procedures (SOP). These can reduce the number of oral orders needed to control fire. SOPs must be known and understood by all members of the unit. Three SOPs are the search-fire-check SOP, the return-fire SOP, and the rate-of-fire SOP. A procedure for giving fire commands for direct fire weapons should also be SOP.
The search-fire-check SOP, follows these steps:
Step 1
Search your assigned sectors for enemy targets.
Step 2
Fire at any targets (appropriate for your weapon) seen in your sectors.
Step 3
While firing in your sectors, visually check with your leader for specific orders.
The return-fire SOP tells each soldier in a unit what to do in case the unit makes unexpected contact with the enemy (in an ambush, for example). These instructions will vary from unit to unit and from position to position within those units. The rate-of-fire SOP tells each soldier how fast to fire at the enemy. The rate of fire varies among weapons, but the principle is to fire at a maximum rate when first engaging a target and then slow the rate to a point that will keep the target suppressed. That helps keep weapons from running out of ammunition too fast.
FIRE COMMANDS
To help identify a target for a direct fire weapon and to control that weapon's fire, a leader may give a fire command to that weapon.
A fire command has the following six parts:
Alert.
Direction.
Target Description.
Range.
Method of Fire.
Command to Fire.
Alert. This gets your attention. The leader may alert you by calling your name or unit designation, by giving some type of visual or sound signal, by personal contact, or by any other practical way.
Direction. This tells you which way to look to see the target. The following are ways to give the direction to the target:
Your leader may point to a target with his arm or rifle. This will give you the general direction of the target.
Your leader may fire tracer ammunition at a target to quickly and accurately identify it. However, before firing, he should show you the general direction.
Your leader may designate certain features as TRPs before contact is made with the enemy. Each TRP will have a number to identify it. He may give a target's direction in relationship to a TRP. For example FROM TRP 13, RIGHT 50. That means that the target is 50 meters to the right of TRP 13.
Target Description. This tells you what the target is. Your leader should describe it briefly, but accurately. For example MACHINE GUN POSITION IN THE WOODLINE.
Range. This tells you how far away the target is. The range is given in meters.
Method of Fire. This tells you who is to fire. It may also tell you how much ammunition to fire. For example, your leader may want only the grenadier to fire at a target. He may also want him to fire only three rounds. For example, he would say: GRENADIER, THREE ROUNDS.
Command to Fire. This tells you when to fire. It may be an oral command, or a sound or visual signal. If your leader wants to control the exact moment of fire, he may say AT MY COMMAND, (then pause until he is ready) FIRE. If he wants your fire to start upon completion of the fire command, he will simply say FIRE (without pausing).Visual signals are the most common means of giving fire commands. Arm-and-hand signals, personal examples, and pyrotechnics are some of the things your leader may use for visual signals. Your leader may use arm-and-hand signals to give fire commands when you can see him. He may use flares and smoke grenades to mark targets in most conditions of visibility. Your leader may use his weapon to fire on a target as a signal; you fire when he fires. Watch your leader and do as he does. He may use tracers to point out targets.
Pathfinder-X is offline   Reply With Quote
Old May 7th, 2004   #13
Tribal Warlord
Colonel
Pathfinder-X's Avatar
Join Date: Apr 2004
Location: Glorious Soviet Canuckistan
Posts: 1,344
Threads:
Re: Complete U.S Army Manual.

ok guys i posted the complete infantry manual for u. the weapon procedure manual is out of date, it originally mentioned M16A1 and Colt .45 handgun and M60 machine gun. i updated the contents a little myself, like M16A2, Beretta and SAW. but some of it i still haven't got the time to fix up, lk the LAW and Dragoon missile which both aren't in service anymore.

hope u guys find this thread useful

now i got the whole manual posted, plz delete my last post. it's called "U.S army MOUT manual"
Pathfinder-X is offline   Reply With Quote
Old May 7th, 2004   #14
Defense Aficionado
Major General
No Avatar
Join Date: Mar 2004
Location: U.K.
Posts: 2,172
Threads:
Re: Complete U.S Army Manual.

Quote:
Originally Posted by Pathfinder-X
ok guys i posted the complete infantry manual for u. the weapon procedure manual is out of date, it originally mentioned M16A1 and Colt .45 handgun and M60 machine gun. i updated the contents a little myself, like M16A2, Beretta and SAW. but some of it i still haven't got the time to fix up, lk the LAW and Dragoon missile which both aren't in service anymore.

hope u guys find this thread useful

now i got the whole manual posted, plz delete my last post. it's called "U.S army MOUT manual"

LOL Path finder have you been revising this as aprt of your syllabus!! All this much reading is stressing me up i have My Annuals exam comming up and late night cramming is in order!! tis just that you have to learn Procedures i have to learn algorithms!!
adsH is offline   Reply With Quote
Old May 8th, 2004   #15
Tribal Warlord
Colonel
Pathfinder-X's Avatar
Join Date: Apr 2004
Location: Glorious Soviet Canuckistan
Posts: 1,344
Threads:
Re: Complete U.S Army Manual.

Quote:
Originally Posted by adsH
LOL Path finder have you been revising this as aprt of your syllabus!! All this much reading is stressing me up i have My Annuals exam comming up and late night cramming is in order!! tis just that you have to learn Procedures i have to learn algorithms!!
well u should quit complaining and work harder. i put work into this thing, u think it's easy adding info into this outdated manual? besides i still in my last year of high school, and i got my final exams coming up in juz a few weeks and i still got the time to review and update on this manual.
Pathfinder-X is offline   Reply With Quote
Reply

Thread Tools
Rate This Thread
Rate This Thread:


All times are GMT -4. The time now is 04:12 AM.