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Hypothetical Forces : Transformation

This is a discussion on Hypothetical Forces : Transformation within the Geo-strategic Issues forum, part of the Global Defense & Military category; As none of the "hypothetical..." threads has been active in the last two months, here's a new one However, the ...


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Old July 5th, 2008   #1
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Hypothetical Forces : Transformation

As none of the "hypothetical..." threads has been active in the last two months, here's a new one

However, the focus of this will be on something different from usual: Not upgrading a military to counter an existing or potential thread, but simply transforming a military from a Cold-War footing into a modern, 21st Century military.

The current year is 1995, and your task is to present a 5-year plan and a follow-up outline on how to do this for the country and military presented below.

---

The country you're dealing with is a small one. Roughly the size of Connecticut, with 4.5 million citizens. It borders four other nations: The one it split from, another "traditional" neighbor, and two other free states that split from the same country. Relations with neighbors are between neutral and amicable.

The country primarily consists of two parts: In the West, a 40-km wide valley running through it from North to South, as well as the immediately bordering forrested hills. A large river runs through it. This valley houses about 60% of the population, most of the industry, and two large inland ports.
To the east, a comparably vast set of medium-height plains opens up, relatively sparsely populated (but remember we're dealing with European levels).
Inbetween these two area, a hill range bisects the country essentially. The hill range raises significantly (above 2000 feet) in both the North and South, while providing a relative opening between both other areas in the center.

It's primary exports are energy (the country operates four nuclear power plants plus several advanced coal power plants), chemical products (as it houses one of the largest chemical plants worldwide), large-scale machinery, including trucks, as well as a number of agricultural products including wine and raw tobacco. While the country is not autonomous regarding food products, it has decent, expandable agricultural development.

Albeit, overall it's a rather rich region, and current GDP is around 115 billion Dollar. As a rough ballpark number, you're allowed to spend up to 2.0% GDP for the military. Current expenditure is 1.2 billion Dollar, leaving you with up to 1.1 billion Dollar to spend for new things annually (all Dollar values 1995 values).
Note: this puts the military spending in relation to population roughly on a level between Portugal and Denmark.

The current military employs some 13,500 active soldiers (7,000 of them in combat units), and has roughly 18,500 soldiers in reserve. Conscription used to be the norm, but has been suspended. Voluntary recruitment influx supports a moderate size increase.

edit: further information in posts #3 and #6.
edit: found the single helo squadron posted in the area finally.

---

ToE Outline of current military forces:
Active Units
  • 1st Armour Brigade
  • 1st Artillery Regiment
  • 1st ADA Regiment
  • Border Guard battalion
  • Helicopter Squadron
Partially Active Reserve Units:
  • Support/Maintenance Command (10 battalions)
  • Engineer Command (9 battalions)
  • Medical Command (5 battalions)
  • Military Police battalion
  • Two Signals regiments
Inactive Reserve Units:
  • Territorial Defense Command (13 battalions)

---

The Armor Brigade is a traditional Cold-War NATO brigade with five combat battalions.

Heavy Equipment in operation:
Tanks: 100 Leopard 2A4
AFVs: 21 KanJgPz, 36 Gepard B2L, 12 Jaguar 1
IFV/APCs: 46 Marder 1A2, 8 M577A1, 28 M113GA2, 72 Fuchs 1A2/1A3 (specialized), 16 TM170 (borderguard)
Artillery: 18 M110A2, 18 M109A3G, 16 LARS MLRS, 18 FH-70 155mm, 18 M56 105mm
Mortars: 12 M113 with 120mm mortar, 36 towed 120mm mortars
Heavy Crew-served: ~100 Milan ATGM, ~100 FK20 20mm guns, ~1200 light anti-tank weapons
Helicopters: 7 SA313B Alouette-II light utility helos (+3 for spare parts)

---

Recent Reform:

Roughly one-fifth to one-quarter of original reserve forces have been shed so far.

The Territorial Defense Command was formed under the last government from pre-existing reserve forces. It stocks reserve equipment and manages reservists for three heterogenous infantry regiments with limited combined-arms capability, three security battalions and one field artillery battalion. These are all truck-mounted light infantry with some minimal anti-tank capability, and towed mortars and howitzers for fire support.

Medical Command combines units from two former medical regiments, and provides medical support to all fixed bases, as well as three mobile medical and one MASH battalion.

Engineer Command commands four relatively standard engineer battalions, six light CMC engineer companies, three NBC defence battalions, and two amphibious engineer battalions responsible for operations on and around the two major rivers in the territory, especially regarding bridging.

Support/Maintenance Command collects the rather dense support infrastructure in the area, with five transport and replenishment battalions and two maintenance battalions. This command also operates a military-run large maintenance facility, as well as five large depots.

Of the two signals regiments, one operates fixed sites for Satcom, Communications (ACE High), Air Surveillance etc, while the other provides more general signals support, including mobile facilities.

The military units have been restationed to four primary active sites and six reserve mobilization points. Additional to that are a number of smaller sites plus depots.

---

Criticism:

A number of bad points about this military structure can easily be seen:
It's heavily skewed towards the support side, to an extent not needed in any way for the existing combat units.
The second glaring point is that there is no aviation capability at all at the moment. For such operations, two centrally located small airports would be available, of which one would be a conversion from a civilian site.
A real problem is the wide varity of equipment in current operation, especially in artillery. Additionally, there aren't enough armoured vehicles available to form a decent mechanized capability.
Air Defence is completely non-existant, and a point of concern.

Most primary equipment - save for ADA, tanks and specialized armored vehicles (Fuchs 1A3 NBC, TM170) - is relatively old and needs upgrades or replacement.

---

Considerations:
  • The country had to agree in a number of devolved treaties limiting its forces: Active units may not exceed 25,000 soldiers; all combatants including borderguard are included in that. No weapon system with a range above 50 km may be acquired; local nuclear research has to be suspended.
  • As it's 1995, the wars in Bosnia and Croatia are currently coming to an end. The government would like to garner some international favours by participating in planned peacekeeping operations, contributing about a battalion.
  • Air Defence has been wished for recently in light of the not really all that distant ongoing war, and recent intrusions of aircraft over territories of other friendly nations.
  • A moderate increase of Borderguard forces is to be considered.

Sooo... anyone up to it?
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Last edited by kato; July 7th, 2008 at 08:33 AM.
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Old July 5th, 2008   #2
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Hmm. I'd consider re-joining that eastern neighbor. Bigger isn't always better, but united is certainly better then divided.

EDIT: Militarily I'd consider latching on to either the F-35 or PAK-FA, or whatever other 5th gen. aircraft programs exist. The current ground forces equipment seems to be up to date. Maybe upgrade the C4ISTAR. Consider some UAV's.
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Old July 5th, 2008   #3
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A little expansion (country is Blue):

Country to the east:
"Green 1". Friendly relations, same situation there, albeit on a far larger scale for that country. Amicable relationship somewhat stretched over small, non-military border dispute. Strong defence industry.

Country to the south:
"Green 2". Same situation as Green 1 essentially. Close economic relationship, especially in mutual border regions. Dependant on energy deliveries from Blue. Has closer relationship to another country further south, some ethnic reservations about Blue and people further north. Good relationship with Green 1.

Country to the northwest:
"Orange". The country that Blue, Green 1 and Green 2 split from. Reasonably stressed relationship over split, some bad feelings on either side. Suffers economic problems since split.

Country to the southwest:
"Pink". The old-time neighbour. Neutral with regards to Blue, Green 1 and Green 2, neutral to amicable relationship with Orange. Some reservations on Blue's and Green 1's side due to historical context.

Note: 1995. Pak-Fa, F-35/JSF not in sight for another 15-20 years at least.
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Old July 6th, 2008   #4
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But lots of 5th gen. projects on the drawing boards. Definetly need to latch on to at least one of them, and the earlier the better. Purchasing used planes from shrinking militaries is another option. Refurbished Ukranian or Belorussian MiG's are a solution.
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Old July 6th, 2008   #5
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But lots of 5th gen. projects on the drawing boards. Definetly need to latch on to at least one of them, and the earlier the better. Purchasing used planes from shrinking militaries is another option. Refurbished Ukranian or Belorussian MiG's are a solution.
Dont buy any expensive aviation stuff. In these circumstances it is almost useless. Buy refurbished Mig-29 / F-4 / F-16 / Mig-21Bisons. Basically, any BVR plane to control airspace against occasional isolated intruders.

Joining major power block (officially or non-officially) is mandatory. I dont think this can be avoided anyway. Most military funds should be spend on integrating own military within that block, AND basic military training for whole population, along with strong propaganda about defending motherland, etc.

With such setup any aggressor would face very unpleasant background and would think twice if it worth to occupy such country.
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Old July 6th, 2008   #6
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Power Block structure:
  • EU membership application is under process, to be gained around 1999-2000 likely.
  • NATO membership is currently not under consideration, as a large percentage of population opposes that.
Bilateral relationship:
  • currently, a common economic zone is being set up with Green 1 and Green 2.
  • militarily, Green 2 has offered mutual training exchanges, a beneficial situation for Blue as it doesn't have major training sites, in particular for its armoured forces; Green 2 is lacking training facilities for certain specialized units (eg signals, maintenance/calibration etc at certain levels)
  • Blue is supplying Green 1 and Green 2 from its military supply infrastructure, depots etc (electronics, spare parts primarily)
  • Green 1 has offered slight discounts on its defence products (AFVs, helicopters, small fixed-wing aircraft), as it has recently been failing to sell these in light of the split from Orange, which used to be the largest customer.
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Old July 7th, 2008   #7
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In these circumstances it is almost useless. Buy refurbished Mig-29 / F-4 / F-16 / Mig-21Bisons. Basically, any BVR plane to control airspace against occasional isolated intruders.
Strategic Partner Green 1 is offering for Blue and Green 2 to shop around from its forces.

Green 1 is putting on the sales table:
- 32 F-4F (not ICE, with Sparrows)
- 20 Alpha Jet A
- 4 Do-28D-2 light utility aircraft
- 24 Bo-105 utility helicopters

The F-4Fs useful for us?

Green 2 will be a competitor for a lot of these, in particular the F-4F and the Bo-105 helos. External competitors for the Alpha Jets.

Green 1 is also offering 4 I-Hawk batteries (6 launchers ea) with assorted equipment. Green 2 is not interested in these.
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Old July 7th, 2008   #8
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Strategic Partner Green 1 is offering for Blue and Green 2 to shop around from its forces.

Green 1 is putting on the sales table:
- 32 F-4F (not ICE, with Sparrows)
- 20 Alpha Jet A
- 4 Do-28D-2 light utility aircraft
- 24 Bo-105 utility helicopters

The F-4Fs useful for us?

Green 2 will be a competitor for a lot of these, in particular the F-4F and the Bo-105 helos. External competitors for the Alpha Jets.

Green 1 is also offering 4 I-Hawk batteries (6 launchers ea) with assorted equipment. Green 2 is not interested in these.
F-4 would be useful - one definitely need supersonic fighter to control its airspace against occasional intruders - much like border guards. Helos are needed in every army, mainly for transport, recon and light support duties.

I'm unsure about SAM's - seems for such small country without proper AD network they are not much of use. On the other hand, they are cheap to operate, provide additional radar coverage and can be integrated in "big brother" network if an alliance is made.
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Old July 7th, 2008   #9
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For perspective, the airforces of neighbors:

Green 1 - slashing down and upgrading to:
48 Tornado IDS + 48 Tornado ADV + 24 Alpha Jet A (target)
Green 2 - seeking similar capability to Blue:
36 RF-4E (no A2A capability, CAS-capable)
Orange - slashing down:
68 F-4F/ICE + 30 RF-4E + 110 Tornado IDS + 50 Alpha Jet A
Pink - slashing down and modernising:
90 Mirage 2000, 80 Mirage III/5, 80 Jaguar (+40 stocked)

While Blue doesn't really want or need to (or can) play in the same leagues, at least a minimal interception capability is desired.

As an alternative, Pink is offering a squadron of standard Jaguar A (20 aircraft) or upgraded Mirage 50M (16 aircraft) at a somewhat higher price.
F-16 are not available due to political circumstances. Gripen would be possible, but at considerably higher cost.
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Old July 7th, 2008   #10
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F-4 would be useful - one definitely need supersonic fighter to control its airspace against occasional intruders - much like border guards. Helos are needed in every army, mainly for transport, recon and light support duties.

I'm unsure about SAM's - seems for such small country without proper AD network they are not much of use. On the other hand, they are cheap to operate, provide additional radar coverage and can be integrated in "big brother" network if an alliance is made.
Anything beyond F-5E/Fs are too sophisticated for such a young air force. So I would buy:
- 8 L-39s and hire ex Warsaw Pact pilots for instructors of the future fighter pilots. They are excellent professionals, are familiar with the L-39 and at the time around 1995 are abundant and most of them unemployed. If the government desides to take the offered Alpha jets the foreign instructors would be at least 3 times more expensive to hire. While the training programm is underway the government would seek for a fighter type. In light of the aircraft offered I would purchase the Dorniers and up to twelve Bo.105s. Mi-17s would also be needed. If a fighter type is more needed I'd go for some F-5Es, otherwise Su-25 is an excellent combat aircraft.
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Old July 7th, 2008   #11
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True, creating an airforce needs a step-by-step concept here. Although, in comparison to other countries, this military is almost swimming in money (relatively).
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Old July 7th, 2008   #12
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Whoa, that puts the situation in a whole other light!
So the number of trainers purchased would be raised to 16. The goal is that in 7 years tow squadrons of 24-32 fighters would be available.
Of course a military alliance with Green 1 would be a solution that will make the Tornado ADV's protective air cover a possibillity. Some concessions about the border area disputed will be needed.
Another possibility is an alliance with Green 2: If they provide the ground attack capability we provide the air cover. So MiG-29, produced for the soviet air force, but cancelled due to the economic crysis (we know the deal) and stored at the MiG airfield are the best sollution. Buy 14 fighters and 6 twin-seaters and hire russian mercenaries. That solution stays even if the alliance doesn't take place.

Forgot to explain: Mercenaries are the emergency solution, while our cadets are in training. Then gradually use the russian pilots in the secondary instructor role (that is the reason for 6 instead of only 2 MiG-29UB trainers). If the russian intentionally try to sabotage the conversion programm in order to stay longer there is always the possibillity to use polish, czech or bulgarian instructors. This is EXACTLY what happened in Ethiopia during the war with Eritrea.
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Old July 8th, 2008   #13
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----------General frame------------------------------------------------
Alright. As for the territory of the country if I am not mistaking we have the urbanized area of the country bordering the state "we" split from. So it poses the greatest threat. Tanks are OK, but a possibility to raise the tanks to 180 units would be nice. Anyway a big problem is that the border doesn't run through the river bed. So on one hand the tanks must be predeployed there, on the other they would be trapped there in a possible conflict. In order for that NOT to happen the country needs very well established infrastructure (heavy bridges) and control over them is vital. An engineer pontoon regiment is also needed. Minimum needed is one riverine battalion with tank-capable landing craft (considering the two big riverine ports that would be possible) and one pontoon battalion as th etwo rivers are connected, but two each would be even better. I don't think river monitors are needed. Armament industry is vital. As the seccetion happened lately there would probably be arms embargoes. So at the first place the country needs to establish advanced automotive production factories for heavy duty trucks (dual purpose - officially civil, but unofficially also military, best way is to seek czech help from TATRA) and engineering equipment factories (could be incorporated in the automotive branch). When the limits are lifted there will be a solid foundation that way. Arms factories are also needed, but until th elimitations are withdrawn it's best to stick to secret development bureaus. In order to establish them it would be very productive to contract south african and israeli scientists and invest heavily in weapon designs from those countries. Also arangements should be made to buy weaponry and store it there. Also in case of an imminent emergency there should be plans for that inventory to be shipped rapidly to BLUE country. Arms deals with GREEN ONE is a possibillity, but I prefer indigenious production, at least for weaponry such as assault rifles, ATGMs, MANPADs, mortars and towed artillery. Step 2 would be IFVs and APCs plus SP artillery.
---------------Armed forces structural reform----------------------
Field corps
Active Units
* 1st Armour Brigade:
---> Tank battalion of 3 tank companies, a mechanised infantry company and an HQ and support company
---> Mechanised battalion of 1 tank company, 3 mechanised infantry companies and an HQ and support company
---> Mechanised battalion of 1 tank company, 3 mechanised infantry companies and an HQ and support company
---> Mechanised battalion of 1 tank company, 3 mechanised infantry companies and an HQ and support company
---> Field artillery battalion (SP)
---> Combat engineer battalion
---> Logistics battalion
---> Other supporting units (inclide the Mobile Mechanised Warfare Training [Battalion])
60% pecetime readiness
* 1st Artillery Regiment
---> Artillery reconnaissance battalion
---> Field artillery battalion (SP)
---> Field artillery battalion (SP)
---> MLRS battalion
---> MLRS battalion
---> Field artillery battalion (towed)
---> Field artillery battalion (towed)
---> Field artillery battalion (towed)
Artillery recon battalion and one MLRS battalion at 50% in peacetime, others cadred

* 1st ADA Regiment
Until more troops are trained retain only one AD battalion and buy as many MANPADS from ex NVA-stocks as possible as soon as possible.
Develop the aerospace surveillance system with the intention to establish SAM units.

* Border Guard battalion
Expand the BG to 3 battalions. Manpower will come from the restructuring - main manpower force of these should be of military service volunteers.

* Helicopter Squadron
Establish a second squadron for training purposes with the intention to expand the helicopter force. For that buy 10 Bo.105s

Partially Active Reserve Units:

* Support/Maintenance Command
Support/Maintenance Command: three combined transport and replenishment battalions (one field army, one supporting units and one air force) plus three cadred when in wartime and two maintenance battalions. One battalion operates a military-run large maintenance facility, as well as five large depots (platoon each).

* Engineer Command (9 battalions)
Engineer Command commands four relatively standard engineer battalions (reduce to two cadred), six light CMC engineer companies (reduce to two plus two cadred), three NBC defence battalions (two transform into cadred), a pontoon engineer battalion and an amphibious transport battalion, if manpower levels allow that one more each.

* Medical Command (5 battalions)
Medical Command: one medical regiment with one battalion for medical support to all fixed bases (includes an aviation medicien facility), as well as three mobile medical and one MASH battalion. Manpower levels are kept relatively low. reason is that the military provides students with scholarships and then puts them in the medical reserve.

* Military Police battalion

* Two Signals regiments
Of the two signals regiments, one operates fixed sites for Satcom, Communications (ACE High), Air Surveillance etc, while the other provides more general signals support, including mobile facilities.

* An SAS Regiment is needed as soon as possible!!!

Inactive Reserve Units:

* Territorial Defense Command (13 battalions)
The Territorial Defense Command was formed under the last government from pre-existing reserve forces. It stocks reserve equipment and manages reservists for three heterogenous infantry regiments with limited combined-arms capability, three security battalions and one field artillery battalion. These are all truck-mounted light infantry with some minimal anti-tank capability, and towed mortars and howitzers for fire support.


--------------Field army inventory considerations-------------------------

Heavy Equipment in operation:
Tanks: 100 Leopard 2A4 - if possible raise number to 180
AFVs: 21 KanJgPz, 36 Gepard B2L, 12 Jaguar 1 - store KanJgPz and Jaguars and if situation in the region stays stable for the five years to come scrap them. Raise the Gepards to 60-80 units and upgrade them with new radars and SAMs
IFV/APCs: 46 Marder 1A2, 8 M577A1, 28 M113GA2, 72 Fuchs 1A2/1A3 (specialized), 16 TM170 (borderguard) - no good. most of these are old and Marders aren't amphibious so if bridges are demolished and enemy advance in a war is rapid they will be trapped between the border and the rivers. I would go for a combined solution of both tracked design (CV.90) and wheeled russian BTR-90
Artillery: 18 M110A2, 18 M109A3G, 16 LARS MLRS, 18 FH-70 155mm, 18 M56 105mm - scrap the M56s, store the M110s. Raise and upgrade the M109s, scrap the MLRS and replace it with russian URAGAN MLRS. If the weapon transfer is frozen go for south-african SP MLRS. Expand towed artillery quantities to at least 100 units.
Mortars: 12 M113 with 120mm mortar, 36 towed 120mm mortars - Expand mortar inventories.
Heavy Crew-served: ~100 Milan ATGM, ~100 FK20 20mm guns, ~1200 light anti-tank weapons. - Check NVA-stockpiles for a great number of cheap rugged weapons systems.
Helicopters: 7 SA313B Alouette-II light utility helos (+3 for spare parts) - Order 8 Mi-17s, around 12 Bo.105 PAH-1s and some 10 B.206 Jet Rangers. Start ambitious pilot training programm.

The military units have been restationed to four primary active sites and six reserve mobilization points. Additional to that are a number of smaller sites plus depots. So overhaul and modernise them. As soon as possible construction of two main air force bases should start, even before the aircraft for the expansion of the fleet are chosen. Immediately.




* Active units may not exceed 25,000 soldiers; all combatants including borderguard are included in that. So manpower should be kept at around 19.000 in order to have around 4,000 trainees yearly.
No weapon system with a range above 50 km may be acquired.
* As it's 1995, the wars in Bosnia and Croatia are currently coming to an end. The government would like to garner some international favours by participating in planned peacekeeping operations, contributing about a battalion. - But this doesn't mean the force should play a leading role. So a field hospital and a construction engineer company will be dispatched along with a logistics company to distribute humanitarian aid and an infantry company to provide security for them.
* Air Defence has been wished for recently in light of the not really all that distant ongoing war, and recent intrusions of aircraft over territories of other friendly nations. Because of the 50km limitation I sugest 2 battalions of self-propelled Buk SAMs when people are trained.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Government proceeds with its EU aspirations and leaves any chances for NATO. It does its best to tie the country to the european economies as much as possible so in a case of war the EU-member countries should protect their interests.
Common economic zone with Green 1 and Green 2 is established. Both countries are approached with suggestions for a military defense alliance. Anyway they SHOULD be made understand that BLUE is ready to provide support in every way possible and expects the same from them and that at that moment they are NOT doing the slightest thing in that direction and BLUE efforts are one-sided. So a time could come when BLUE seeks a powerfull ally, who is ready to provide military forces on BLUE territory. Green 1 has offered slight discounts on its defence products (AFVs, helicopters, small fixed-wing aircraft), as it has recently been failing to sell these in light of the split from Orange, which used to be the largest customer. So BLUE diplomats should impress that country that it is not the time to seek pure financial profit when situation is not stable yet and that BLUE is supplying GREEN 1 with military equipment at prises for BLUE MILITARY and expects the same. If GREEN 1 doesn't lower prises it will have to face a strong military presence of an overseas country on BLUE soil as that country is not capable of providing itself with the defense needed. If that doesn't help then BLUE will make a moderate order for russian weaponry. Say 14 MiG-29s, 8 Mi-24s, 16 Mi-17s and around 80 BTR-90s. If that doesn't help Russia will become the main supplier of weaponry when domestic production (aided by south african and israeli connections) is not enough to meet the armed forces needs.
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Old July 8th, 2008   #14
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Alright, answering some things...

Urbanization:
Yes, the area is indeed heavily urbanized in the river valley. In the river valley, there are two larger agglomerations (900k and 700k ppl respectively). The larger agglomeration is where the second river runs into the main river, the other one is farther south. The valley doesn't represent the former urbanized region of Orange, but merely a small part of it (Orange is considerably bigger). The immediately surrounding areas of Orange along the border though are rather rural, except for immediately following the river valley further to the North. All other bordering areas are also rural, the urbanized regions of Green 1 and Green 2 in particular lie elsewhere.

I'll post a map on rough distribution of population later on, as this is somewhat important data really.

River/Bridges:
The main river is crossed along it's length (about 120 km between divided parts) by only 9 large bridges, all at least MLC100 capable. 4 of these are within the two agglomerations. In addition, there are regular ferry services across the river using standardized 30-ton payload ferries in 6 places.

Military bridging forces are available in the Engineer Command: The Engineer Command has one battalion with amphibious road-mobile pontoon bridges (MLC60) and several companies with Ribbon Bridge systems (MLC60, 270m length total). As for other riverine craft, these units also operate about 30 highly maneuverable small speedboats for auxiliary functions.

Orange used to have a company with 12 LCUs and 4 light PBs assigned for this area, but these were stationed farther north outside the territory of Blue, and were decommissioned and scrapped five years before the split.
The port of the larger agglomeration (capital) has spare quay capacity to house multiples of far larger riverine ships.

---

Regarding improvements:
- getting additional Leo 2A4 might pose a problem, although will probably be possible.
- artillery: further FH70? further 155mm? or move to an entirely different towed system (e.g. D30)?
- Air Force Base 1 can be taken over with minimal modification, can house up to 30 helos and light aircraft in strengthened hangars.
- Air Force Base 2 will have to be chosen from: Site A, civilian sports airport, support up to An-26 size, not expandable; Site B, deactivated former cargo airport, essentially prepared site with no buildings left. Site B has advantage of wider distribution of sites.

Your Plan for Bosnia meets approval with the government.

Green 1 offers to form a defence industry pact with Blue and Green 2 in which these three nations would be able to buy from domestic industry of the three nations at equal prices through a common procurement agency (but don't have to use this agency for outside purchases).
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Old July 8th, 2008   #15
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For perspective, the airforces of neighbors:
F-16 are not available due to political circumstances. Gripen would be possible, but at considerably higher cost.
Is other US hardware available? Or is it all off limits?
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